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The Monte Carlo ray-trace (MCRT) method is based on a probabilistic interpretation of the radiative behavior of surface and volume elements, and the radiation distribution factor is itself a probability. Therefore, the uncertainty of results obtained using the method should be predictable using standard statistical methods. Specifically, we should be able to use statistical inference to state, to a specified level of confidence, the uncertainty of a result obtained. The chapter begins with a brief review of probability and statistics, after which the principles of statistical inference are applied to the MCRT method. Finally, a formal structure is presented for the experimental design of MCRT algorithms.