Impedimetric Biosensors for Medical Applications: Current Progress and Challenges
3 Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
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The foundations of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy date back to the end of the 19th century through the work of the English mathematician and physicist, Oliver Heaviside, who coined the term “impedance” (Heaviside, 1894a, b; Macdonald, 2006). By the 1920’s and 1930’s, EIS was being employed to gain information about various biological systems, including blood (Fricke, 1925), cell membranes (Cole, 1932), whole sea urchin eggs (Cole, 1928) and contracting muscles (Dubuisson, 1937). The apparatus used at this time was complex and very bulky, with some pieces of equipment such as the Wheatstone bridge, used for measuring resistance and capacitance, taking up an entire room (Fricke, 1925).