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Chapter 54 on Pipeline Integrity and Security Pipelines had initially been authored by Alan Murray for the second edition, and coauthored by Alan Murray and Rafael Mora in this current third edition. The authors note that pipelines are an economic and comparatively safe means of transporting hydrocarbons and many other fluids over great distances. Incidents, while relatively rare, can have serious consequences, so protecting the public, and the environment, is paramount. This is achieved through a combination of regulatory oversight, prudent pipeline integrity management and the use of appropriate technology. Regulatory requirements vary greatly throughout the world and are reflective of an underlying safety philosophy, ranging from the prescriptive approach adopted in the United States to the performance-based methods favored in the United Kingdom. These various approaches are compared before addressing how they, and accompanying codes and standards, are used to formulate the essential elements needed in a sound integrity management plan. The finite resources available for maintaining a pipeline means that, a risk-based approach must be followed, so as to prudently allocate expenditures. Accordingly both qualitative and quantitative methods of assigning risk are described. The four main methods of undertaking integrity assessments are outlined and a detailed approach to assessing defects is provided including several worked examples.
A number of relatively simple means of protecting a pipeline asset are available, ranging from coatings and cathodic protection to preventing third-party damage. These are described, before addressing a relatively new threat stemming from willful targeting a pipeline operation either through physical or cyber attack.