Nanoparticles and Brain Tumor Treatment
6 Nanomedicine Applications in Brain Tumors
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In the last decade various studies have demonstrated the value of nanotechnology in brain tumor treatment. Nanomedicine can give many ideal devices for delivery of specific compounds to brain tumors, loading them into nanoparticle-based carriers via a variety of chemical methods including encapsulation, adsorption and covalent linkage. In brain tumor treatment, various molecules at different steps and pathways, such as cell immortalization and apoptosis escape, tumor neoangiogenesis, and invasion of normal tissues have been studied as possible targets of a novel therapeutic model. Recent advances in molecular, biological and genetic diagnostic techniques have evidenced new cerebral glioma-associated biomarkers and their implications for gliomas progression. The possibility to block the more contemporary pathway into glioma by molecular-based targeted approaches, using a nanocarrier loaded with anti-cancer agent, represents an interesting therapeutic strategy. This new strategy could permit overcoming of the BBB and to delivery drugs and/or genetic probes into brain tumor cells in a selective manner. The future challenges of this approach may be the possibility to modify the cell genome, and induce it to a reversion into the wild-type conditions, the enhancing of immune system antitumor capacity, and the targeted drug-delivery into brain tumor cells. Bernardi et al.  evaluated the efficacy of immunonanoshells in vitro against medulloblastoma and malignant glioma cell lines.