Biomedical Applications of Vibration and Acoustics in Therapy, Bioeffect and Modeling
5 Effects of Ultrasound Stimulation on Chondrocytes in Three-Dimensional Culture in Relation to the Production of Regenerative Cartilage Tissue
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This chapter describes the effects of ultrasound stimulation on chondrocytes in three-dimensional culture in relation to the production of regenerative cartilage tissue, using collagen sponges as a carrier and supplementation with hyaluronic acid (used in the conservative treatment of osteoarthritis), and the mechanism of the adaptive response of chondrocytes to mechanical loading. It has been shown that cell proliferation and matrix production can be facilitated by considering the mechanical environment of the cultured chondrocytes and the mechanical properties of the scaffold structure used in the culture and of the stimulation used. On the basis of these results, it may be possible to establish the optimal conditions for mechanical stimulation, such as ultrasound frequency and intensity, and repetition frequency, for the production of regenerative cartilage tissue.