Biomedical Applications of Vibration and Acoustics in Therapy, Bioeffect and Modeling
4 Effects of Mechanical Vibration on Cultured Osteoblasts in Relation to Fracture Healing
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This chapter describes the effects of the frequency and acceleration amplitude of mechanical vibration on osteoblasts, the bone cells that generate the bone matrix, and the mechanism of the adaptive response of cells to mechanical loading in relation to the use of medical devices that apply mechanical stimulation to promote the healing of bone fractures. The following experimental results of sinusoidal excitation of osteoblasts have been shown:
1. Cell density decreased at 0.5 G with increasing frequency in the range from 12.5 Hz to 200 Hz and increased at 25 Hz with increasing acceleration amplitude from 0 to 0.5 G at 14 days of culture.
2. No calcium salts were observed in the non-vibrating group, and the areas of calcium salts observed in the 0.5 G vibration group were larger than those in the 0.25 G group at 25 Hz at 21 days of culture.
3. The messenger RNA (mRNA) level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) at 0.5 G showed the peak at 50 Hz in the range from 12.5 Hz to 400 Hz, and the level at 25 Hz and 0.5 G was significantly larger than at 0, 0.125, or 0.25 G at 7 days of culture.
It has been shown that it is important to consider mechanical vibration as well as biochemical aspects in studies of the functional adaptation of cells to mechanical stimulation.