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Biomedical Applications of Vibration and Acoustics in Imaging and Characterizations
Mostafa Fatim
Mostafa Fatim
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Ahmed Al-Jumaily
Ahmed Al-Jumaily
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ASME Press
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This chapter reviews recent experimental findings applying non-linear dynamical techniques, termed nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS), to infer progressive mechanical damage in human bone, in vitro. Standard measures of bone mechanical properties are compared where possible, including the quasistatically derived stiffness and hysteresis. The goal is to explore whether or not the methods can ultimately be applied in vivo, for applications such as diagnosing and monitoring the progression of osteoporosis, as well as bone healing. It is shown that the NEWS methods are extremely sensitive to progressive damage, far more so than the other methods applied. The results are promising, and current discussion involves how to conduct similar experiments in vivo.

13.1 Introduction and Background
13.2 Introduction to Elastic Non-Linearity
13.3 Theory
13.4 Experiments
13.4.1 Samples
13.4.2 Experimental Protocol
13.4.3 Non-Linear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy
13.4.4 Non-Linear Wave Modulation Spectroscopy
13.5 Results
13.5.1 NRUS Observations
13.5.2 NWMS Observations
13.6 Discussion and Conclusions
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