11 Pulsation and Vibration Analysis of Compression and Pumping Systems
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Flow and acoustic phenomena associated with various mechanical components in compressions and pumping systems have been the subject of considerable effort over the past few decades [1–15]. Research efforts concentrated on three main topics: (i) pulsation transmission characteristics of various pipeline elements, such as orifice plate, valves, compressors and branches; (ii) pulsation generation whether it’s flow-induced or resulting from reciprocating machines; and (iii) methods to suppress these pulsations by means of passive elements (such as pulsation bottles, mufflers, Helmholtz resonators, or side branch resonators) or actively by active control (e.g., active control of incipient surge in centrifugal compressor). Flow-generated pulsations in pipeline facilities can be broad-band or single-tone with amplitude levels over 20 times  higher than the dynamic pressure in main pipe. Such a high level of pulsation disturbs flow measurements [9,10,13] and causes vibration of the piping elements. The latter can result in fatigue and serious accidents.