Pipe Stress Engineering
There are a few special thermal problems that account for more than their fair share of piping failures in the field. These include thermal bowing due to uneven temperature distribution across the pipe cross-section, weather exposure of hot-cold pipe junctions, lack of insulation on flanges, and socket weld connections. These problems are seldom treated in piping or pipe stress books. Due to their importance, a separate chapter is allocated to these topics. To better visualize the situation, a number of case histories are used in the discussion.
General bowing behaviors and their basic formulas have been introduced in Section 4.2. This section discusses the details with some real case histories.