Intelligent Engineering Systems through Artificial Neural Networks
30 Cryptographic Properties of Cellular Automata-Based S-Boxes Equivalent to DES S-Boxes
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Substitution boxes (S-boxes) are important elements of many block ciphers. Classical S-boxes are usually represented by specially designed static tables, which are used today in current cryptographic standards, such as Data Encryption Standard (DES)  or Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) , but in the result of developing methods of cryptanalysis they do not ensure enough safety of ciphers. In this paper we propose a methodology to design new more sophisticated 6×4 S-boxes functionally equivalent to ones used in DES. We provide an exhaustive experimental analysis of the proposed Cellular Automata-based (CA-based) S-boxes in terms of non-linearity, autocorrelation, balance and strict avalanche criterion, and compare results with ones related to DES S-boxes. We show that the proposed CA-based S-boxes have cryptographic properties comparable or better than the classical S-box tables. The interesting feature of the proposed S-boxes is a dynamic flexible structure, fully functionally realized by Cellular Automata (CA). A dynamical structure of CA-based S-boxes provides a possibility to use them as dynamic S-boxes, what opens new perspectives in cryptography.