50 A Machine Learning Approach to Expression Modeling for the Singing Voice
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This work investigates how opera singers manipulate timing in order to produce expressive performances that have common features but also bear a distinguishable personal style. We characterize performances not only relative to the score, but also consider the contribution of features extracted from the libretto. Our approach is based on applying machine learning to extract singer-specific patterns of expressive singing from performances by Josep Carreras and Placido Domingo. We compare and contrast some of these rules, and we draw analogies between them and some of the general expressive performance rules from existing literature.