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Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Probabilistic Safety Assessment & Management (PSAM)

Michael G. Stamatelatos
Michael G. Stamatelatos
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Harold S. Blackman
Harold S. Blackman
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ASME Press
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In 2010–2030, the annual growing rate of power demand is expected as around 1%/year in Japan, and the amount of renewable and dispersed generation (DG: distribution generation) will considerably increase in the future electric power supply system. Also, the following factors are the accelerant for increasing the ratio of the distribution generation in the whole supply power.

✓ Pressure to the fossil fuel plant as CO2 exhausting plant.

✓ Political strategy for utilizing the natural resource plant like a wind plant, a photo-voltaic (PV) plant or a biomass plant.

✓ Future innovation of hydrogen technology such as an economical and long-life fuel cell.

✓ Under the liberalization of electricity trade, expectation to the business model of huge number of the distributed generation as a virtual power plant (the whole-sale business of the wind firm).

For the secure supply and the safe operation of renewable and dispersed generation, the harmonized grouping of DG plants and the careful interconnection of the DG micro grid to the existing power grid are required. This paper discusses the DG grouping in order to mitigate the risk and to harmonize the investment of assets, the quality of power supply and the cooperation with the existing power grid. Model analysis shows there are several schemes of the DG plants and the storage device related to the combination of economical parameters.

Types of DG are classified into the natural resource plants type (the wind plant and the PV plant) and the cogeneration plants type (the fuel cell, the biomass gas plant and the micro gas turbine). The generation power of the natural resource considerably fluctuates with the weather condition. In the harmonized grouping of the renewable and dispersed generation, the kW-balance of the total DG output and the demand has to be continuously maintained even in lots of uncertain factors. The battery and other storages can be used for absorbing the mismatch energy of the supply-demand balancing in the DG group. In order to connect the grouped system to the existing utility system, it is necessary to ensure the technical constraints not to give worse disturbances to the exiting network system. From the economical viewpoint, the harmonized grouping can be realized by minimizing the asset investment of the natural resource DG plants and the battery subject to the engineering constraints.

Under the support of NEDO grant, demonstration research projects of DG grouping have been performed in Japan. Brief description of these projects is also included.

Isolated DG grouping for the concentrated demand: This type of DG grouping is experimentally demonstrated in Nagoya as facilities of the 2005 World Exposition.

Isolated DG grouping for the distributed demand: This type of DG grouping is performed in Hachinohe located in the northeast area of Japan as a fully natural resource DG system.

Multiple DG plants to multiple demands through the utility network: Balancing mechanism in the DG group is executed through the public communication net such as the internet media, the ISDN or the ADSL. This type of DG grouping is tested in Kyoto.

Multiple quality of power supply with DC feeding: Applying the DC-DC converter techniques, the separated feeding of different quality power will be demonstrated in Sendai.

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