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Axial-Flow Compressors

Ronald H. Aungier
Ronald H. Aungier
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ASME Press
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Compressors are commonly classified as either positive displacement or dynamic compressors. The positive displacement compressor achieves its pressure rise by trapping fluid in a confined space and transporting it to the region of higher pressure. The dynamic compressor develops its increase in pressure by a dynamic transfer of energy to a continuously flowing fluid stream. There are two basic types of dynamic compressors: axial-flow compressors and centrifugal (radialflow) compressors. The flow streamlines through rotating rows in an axial-flow compressor have a radius that is almost constant, whereas they undergo a substantial increase in radius in a centrifugal compressor. For this...

1.1 Axial-Flow Compressor Basics
1.2 Basic Velocity Diagrams for a Stage
1.3 Similitude and Performance Characteristics
1.4 Stage Matching and Stability
1.5 Dimensionless Parameters
1.6 Units and Conventions
2.1 First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics
2.2 Efficiency
2.3 Fluid Equation-of-State Fundamentals
2.4 The Caloric Equation of State
2.5 Entropy and the Speed of Sound
2.6 The Thermal Equation of State for Real Gases
2.7 Thermodynamic Properties of Real Gases
2.8 Thermally and Calorically Perfect Gases
2.9 The Pseudo-Perfect Gas Model
2.10 Component Performance Parameters
2.11 Gas Viscosity
2.12 A Computerized Equation-of-State Package
3.1 Flow in a Rotating Coordinate System
3.2 Adiabatic Inviscid Compressible Flow
3.3 Adiabatic Inviscid Compressible Flow Applications
3.4 Boundary Layer Analysis
3.5 Two-Dimensional Boundary Layer Analysis
3.6 Axisymmetric Three-Dimensional Boundary Layer Analysis
3.7 Vector Operators in Natural Coordinates
4.1 Cascade Nomenclature
4.2 NACA 65-Series Profile
4.3 Circular-Arc Camberline
4.4 Parabolic-Arc Camberline
4.5 British C.4 Profile
4.6 Double-Circular-Arc Profile
4.7 NACA A4K6 63-Series Guide Vane Profile
4.8 Controlled—Diffusion Airfoils
4.9 Blade Throat Opening
4.10 Staggered Blade Geometry
5.1 The Blade-to-Blade Flow Problem
5.2 Coordinate System and Velocity Components
5.3 Potential Flow in the Blade-to-Blade Plane
5.4 Linearized Potential Flow Analysis
5.5 The Time-Marching Method
5.6 Blade Surface Boundary Layer Analysis
5.7 Summary
6.1 Cascade Geometry and Performance Parameters
6.2 Design Angle of Attack or Incidence Angle
6.3 Design Deviation Angle
6.4 Design Loss Coefficient and Diffusion Factors
6.5 Positive and Negative Stall Incidence Angles
6.6 Mach Number Effects
6.7 Shock Wave Loss for Supersonic Cascades
6.8 Off-Design Cascade Performance Correlations
6.9 Blade Tip Clearance Loss
6.10 Shroud Seal Leakage Loss
6.11 Implementation, Extensions and Alternate Methods
7.1 Meridional Coordinate System
7.2 Inviscid, Adiabatic Flow on a Quasi-Normal
7.3 Linking Quasi-Normals
7.4 Repositioning the Stream Surfaces
7.5 Full Normal Equilibrium Solution
7.6 Simplified Forms of the Through-Flow Analysis
7.7 Annulus Sizing
7.8 Numerical Approximations
8.1 Historical Development of End-Wall Boundary Layer Theory
8.2 The End-Wall Boundary Layer Equations
8.3 The Boundary Layer Velocity Profile Assumptions
8.4 Empirical Models for Entrainment and Wall Shear Stress
8.5 The Blade Force Defect Thicknesses
8.6 Seal Leakage Effects for Shrouded Blades
8.7 Boundary Layer Jump Conditions
8.8 Solution Procedure
8.9 Typical Results
9.1 Geometry Considerations
9.2 Cascade Performance Considerations
9.3 Stall and Compressor Surge Considerations
9.4 Approximate Normal Equilibrium Results
9.5 Full Normal Equilibrium Results
9.6 Concluding Remarks
10.1 Dimensionless Performance Parameters
10.2 Application to Stage Design
10.3 Blade Design
10.4 Selecting the Stage Performance Parameters
10.5 Selecting the Swirl Vortex Type
10.6 Free Vortex Flow
10.7 Constant Reaction Vortex Flow
10.8 Constant Swirl and Exponential Vortex Flow
10.9 Assigned Flow Angle Vortex Flows
10.10 Application to a Practical Stage Design
10.11 A Repeating Stage Axial-Flow Compressor
10.12 A Computerized Stage Design System
11.1 The Basic Compressor Design Approach
11.2 Aerodynamic Performance Specifications
11.3 Blade Design
11.4 Refining the Compressor Design
11.5 An Axial-Flow Compressor Design Example
11.6 The Distribution of Stage Performance Parameters
11.7 The Swirl Vortex Type
11.8 Risks and Benefits
12.1 Quasi-Three-Dimensional Flow
12.2 Hub-to-Shroud Flow Governing Equations
12.3 Numerical Integration of the Governing Equations
12.4 Repositioning Stream Surfaces
12.5 The Hub-to-Shroud Flow Analysis
12.6 Coupling the Two Basic Flow Analyses
12.7 Boundary Layer Analysis
13.1 Adjustable Blade Rows
13.2 The Exhaust Diffuser
13.3 The Scroll or Collector
13.4 Reynolds Number and Surface Roughness Effects
13.5 The Axial-Centrifugal Compressor
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