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Air Engines: The History, Science, and Reality of the Perfect Engine

Theodor Finkelstein
Theodor Finkelstein
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Allan J. Organ
Allan J. Organ
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ASME Press
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In open-cycle engines mechanical work is performed by a quantity of working fluid which is made to undergo successively certain operations, such as induction, compression, heating, expansion, and exhaust. On the other hand, in closed-cycle engines these phases merge into each other, and while part of the working fluid may be heated in one part of the engine, in another part it may simultaneously be cooled. Thus the process is rather more difficult to understand. The invention of the closed-cycle external combustion engine by Stirling in 1816 is therefore probably one of the most amazing innovations that has ever been...

2.1 The invention
2.2 Working principle
2.3 The patent
2.4 Degenerate Stirling engines — double-cylinder types
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