Tribology of Mechanical Systems: A Guide to Present and Future Technologies
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The 20th century has been called the century of mass production and heavy consumption. The earth's natural resources, which have accumulated over hundreds of millions of years, have almost run out during this period. This result led to rapid changes in the environment, such as the ozone layer destruction and the global warming phenomenon, to which all ecosystems, including mankind, cannot adapt. The things that are not reduced to nature are scrapped or discharged everywhere on earth. So now the conservation of the environment is a necessity. The new century has even been called the century of environmental protection. The ideal state of engineering systems such as design, production, service, maintenance and recycling has been rapidly reconsidered. Any kind of manufacturing processes that result in the mass production have been reexamined, keeping environmental protection in mind. For example, the adoption of cold/warm forming is desirable for saving energy. Net shape forming is demanded to decrease the loss of resources. The tribological approach is expected to decrease the waste of oil and water.
This chapter focuses on the metal forming processes, which will continue playing a great role in mass production. The roles and problems of tribology in the cold forming as well as recent developments in this field will be described.