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Pipeline Transportation of Carbon Dioxide Containing Impurities
By
Mo Mohitpour
Mo Mohitpour
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Patricia Seevam
Patricia Seevam
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Kamal K. Botros
Kamal K. Botros
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Brian Rothwell
Brian Rothwell
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Claire Ennis
Claire Ennis
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ISBN:
9780791859834
No. of Pages:
480
Publisher:
ASME Press
Publication date:
2012

CO2 injection techniques for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) have been growing steadily since early 1970s [1]. In 2002, in the USA, the number of CO2 injection projects exceeded the number of thermal recovery. The following are reasons for this increase and the continuing trend:

• CO2 remains a dense fluid over much of the range of reservoirs pressures and temperatures.

• CO2 is miscible or partially miscible with many hydrocarbon components of crude oil at reservoir conditions.

• Dense CO2 has low solubility in water compared to oil.

• CO2 at high pressures has higher viscosity comparing to other gases used in gas flooding.

• There are a lot of naturally occurring CO2 resources near many oil fields.

• CO2 sequestration has environmental benefits by reducing greenhouse gas effects.

CO2 is a very compressible gas and at high pressures forms a phase whose density is close to that of liquid and with a higher viscosity comparing to other gases (although it remains low compared to that of liquids). Dense phase CO2 has the ability to extract hydrocarbon components from oil more easily than if it were in the gaseous phase. CO2 has also been used as cushion gas in gas injection and recovery processes.

5.1 Establishing Design Parameters
5.2 Establishing CO2 Pipeline Pressure
5.3 CO2 Product Quality for Pipeline Transportation
5.4 Other Design Parameters
5.5 Typical Pipeline Systems Design
5.6 Measurement Facilities Layout
5.7 Pipeline Valves and Blow-Downs
5.8 Pipeline Controls
5.9 Piping and Components Materials
5.10 Codes/Standards and Regulations
5.11 Pipeline Routing
References
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