Design of Hazardous Mechanical Structures, Systems and Components for Extreme Loads
8 High-Energy Systems Extreme Load Design and Analysis
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With the exception of postulated blast loading applied to petrochemical facilities [1, 2, 3], these types of analyses and design bases are normally applied only to hazardous nuclear facilities as part of the required design or evaluation procedure.
In  is a detailed review of pipe failure that has occurred in U.S. Commercial Nuclear Reactor Plants between 1961 and 1997. In the 36-year period studied there were 2,247 recorded failure events, which included 118 pipe ruptures reported in the database. As a result of this experience, commercial nuclear power plant facilities are required to consider pipe rupture in high-energy piping and leakage in moderate energy piping as a design basis for the piping and the facility by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).
The U.S. NRC has developed definitions for moderate- and high-energy piping .