For off-road vehicles such as excavators and wheel loaders, a large portion of energy is consumed to overcome the soil resistant force in the digging process. For optimal control of the digging tool, a high-fidelity model of the soil-tool interaction force is important to reduce energy consumption. In this paper, an on-line soil resistant force prediction method is proposed. In this method, a hybrid model, which combines a physical model and a data driven model, is used for the force prediction. In addition, the parameters of the hybrid model can be updated on-line based on real-time data. Comparisons with experimental data demonstrate that the proposed prediction method has an average error of around 12.7%.

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