Adjusting the displacement path of a serial robot encountering the wrist singularity to pass either through the singularity or around it mitigates its adverse effects. Both such path adjustments are commonly called singularity avoidance and are applied here to either a spherical or an offset wrist. These adjustments avoid high joint rates that can occur at singularity encounter. A recent through-the singularity method limits joint rates and accelerations in the robot with either a spherical or offset wrist when conducting a constant rate of traversal of the tool manipulated by the robot. A kinematic model adding multiple virtual joints allows a modified high-order path-following algorithm to maintain accurate tool position while achieving an optimal level of tool deviation in orientation. Whereas a path reversal resulting from a turning-point type singularity had been revealed for an offset wrist over a finite range of close-approach, these conditions are met when connecting the isolated path segments. Procedures are developed here with this capability for an around-the-singularity path. Choosing between the through and around-singularity alternatives offers the overall optimum.

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