The process computer has become firmly established in industrial automatic control. It is used on an increasing scale for direct open-loop and closed-loop control. This opens up new possibilities for applying knowledge gained by the theoretical approach to problems of process automation. Remarkable results have already been achieved, but it has also been realized that automation has its practical limits, which are mainly due to the very nature of the processes themselves. Aspects of economy, reliable operation and easy handling are becoming more and more important for the efficient use of automatic control systems.

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