This paper presents a survey of the model reference adaptive techniques and their applications for control and identification, based on the literature published since 1964 (171 references). Attention is focused on the basic properties and the various types of model reference adaptive systems (MRAS). The most prominent design methods are reviewed. Design methods based on optimal control, parametric optimization, stability and statistical estimation theory are presented; some unresolved questions and future areas of investigation are also discussed. A survey of the applications already accomplished and those that appear feasible in the near future concludes the paper.

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