Abstract

Battery management systems (BMSs), which monitor and optimize performance while ensuring safety, require control-oriented models, i.e., models tailored to the design and implementation of estimation and control algorithms. Physics-based electrochemical models describe detailed battery phenomena, but are too computationally intensive for use in estimation and control applications. Single particle models (SPMs), which retain some of the physics of electrochemical models, are often used for control-oriented battery modeling since they are computationally efficient; however, they are only valid over very low frequency ranges and C-rates. Empirical equivalent circuit models (ECMs) are also used for control-oriented battery modeling since they are computationally efficient and can describe battery behavior over wide frequency ranges; however, they provide no physical understanding of the battery and, therefore, have limited applicability. Further, fractional order terms (e.g., Warburg impedances) are often employed, making the models unwieldy for use in the time domain. This work provides a control-oriented battery model that combines the benefits of SPM and ECM models, while overcoming their limitations. The proposed model incorporates some of the battery physics found in electrochemical models, can easily be used in both the time and frequency domains, and describes battery behavior over its entire frequency range. A linearized single particle model, which incorporates key electrochemical parameters, is used for modeling battery physics at very low frequencies. For low frequencies, integer-order linear systems are used to approximate diffusion physics described by Warburg impedances, and high frequency behavior is modeled by the double layer capacitance effect. The proposed battery model is more computationally efficient than full electrochemical models since it does not require the solution of PDEs, is accurate for a wider frequency range than the SPM considered in this paper, and does not suffer from the unwieldiness and limited applicability of empirical ECMs. The model is validated in the time and frequency domains via a comparison to pseudo-two-dimensional (P2D) model simulations and experimental data.

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