This paper focuses on modeling and control of in-ground-effect (IGE) on multirotor unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). As the vehicle flies and hovers over, around, or underneath obstacles, such as the ground, ceiling, and other features, the IGE induces a change in thrust that drastically affects flight behavior. This effect on each rotor can be vastly different as the vehicle's attitude varies, and this phenomenon limits the ability for precision flight control, navigation, and landing in tight and confined spaces. An exponential model describing this effect is proposed, analyzed, and validated through experiments. The model accurately predicts the quasi-steady IGE for an experimental quadcopter UAV. To compensate for the IGE, a model-based feed-forward controller and a nonlinear-disturbance observer (NDO) are designed for closed-loop control. Both controllers are validated through physical experiments, where results show approximately 23% reduction in the tracking error using the NDO compared to the case when IGE is not compensated for.

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