In this paper, a new aging detection method of a supercapacitor is proposed through the study of the charge process. Good indicators to describe this aging are equivalent series resistance (ESR) and capacitance evolution, which are online unmeasurable parameters of the component model. The proposed model belongs to the class of state and parameter affine nonlinear system. A new adaptive nonlinear observer is designed to estimate, under different aging phases, both states and parameters using measurements only available at each sampling instant. This unusual observer contains an adaptive gain, an unknown parameter into the measured output equation, and the control signal into state matrix. This discrete-continuous observer is proved to be globally exponentially convergent under some sufficient conditions. Theoretical results are implemented for two cases of study, the first one through some simulations and the second one applied on real data for different sampling times and different values of observer gain. Results highlight good performances of the observer in online parameter estimation; thus, the component aging is clearly shown.

References

References
1.
Hammar
,
A.
,
Venet
,
P.
,
Lallemand
,
R.
,
Coquery
,
G.
, and
Rojat
,
G.
,
2010
, “
Study of Accelerated Aging of Supercapacitors for Transport Applications
,”
IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.
,
57
(
12
), pp.
3972
3979
.
2.
Kreczanik
,
P.
,
Venet
,
P.
,
Hijazi
,
A.
, and
Clerc
,
G.
,
2013
, “
Study of Supercapacitor Ageing and Lifetime Estimation according to Voltage, Temperature and RMS Current
,”
IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.
,
61
(
9
), pp.
4895
4902
.
3.
Kovaltchouk
,
T.
,
Multon
,
B.
,
Ben Ahmed
,
H.
,
Aubry
,
J.
, and
Venet
,
P.
,
2015
, ” “
Enhanced Aging Model for Supercapacitors Taking Into account Power Cycling: Application to the Sizing of an Energy Storage System in a Direct Wave Energy Converter
,”
IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl.
,
51
(
3
), pp.
2405
2414
.
4.
Oukaour
,
A.
,
Pouliquen
,
M.
,
Tala-Ighil
,
B.
,
Gualous
,
H.
,
Pigeon
,
E.
, and
Boudart
,
B.
,
2013
, “
Supercapacitors Aging Diagnosis Using Least Square Algorithm
,”
Microelectron. Reliab.
,
53
(
9–11
), pp.
1638
1642
.
5.
Azaïs
,
P.
,
Duclaux
,
L.
,
Florian
,
P.
,
Massicot
,
D.
,
Lillo-Rodena
,
M.-A.
,
Linares-Solano
,
A.
,
Peres
,
J.-P.
,
Jehoulet
,
C.
, and
Béguin
,
F.
,
2007
, “
Causes of Supercapacitors Aging in Organic Electrolyte
,”
J. Power Sources
,
171
(
2
), pp.
1046
1053
.
6.
Kurzweil
,
P.
, and
Chwistek
,
M.
,
2008
, “
Electrochemical Stability of Organic Electrolytes in Supercapacitors: Spectroscopy and Gas Analysis of Decomposition Products
,”
J. Power Sources
,
176
(
2
), pp.
555
567
.
7.
Kapoor
,
A.
,
Ritte
,
J. A.
, and
Yang
,
R.
,
1990
, “
An Extended Langmuir Model for Adsorption of Gas Mixtures on Heterogeneous Surfaces
,”
Am. Chem. Soc.
,
6
(
3
), pp.
660
664
.
8.
German
,
R.
,
Sari
,
A.
,
Venet
,
P.
,
Zitouni
,
Y.
,
Briat
,
O.
, and
Vinassa
,
J.-M.
,
2014
, “
Ageing Law for Supercapacitors Floating Ageing
,”
23rd International Symposium on Industrial Electronics
(
ISIE
),
Istanbul, Turkey
,
June 1–4
, pp.
1773
1777
.
9.
Kurzweil
,
P.
,
Chwistek
,
M.
, and
Gallay
,
R.
,
2006
, “
Capacitance Determination and Abusive Aging Studies of Supercapacitors Based on Acetonitrile and Ionic Liquids
,”
16th International Seminar on Double Layer Capacitor
,
Deerfield Beach, FL
,
Dec. 4–6
, p.
78
.
10.
El Mejdoubi
,
A.
,
Oukaour
,
A.
,
Chaoui
,
H.
,
Gualous
,
H.
,
Sabor
,
J.
, and
Slamani
,
Y.
,
2016
, “
Prediction Aging Model for Supercapacitor's Calendar Life in Vehicular Applications
,”
IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol.
,
65
(
6
), pp.
4253
4263
.
11.
Kötz
,
R.
,
Ruch
,
P. W.
, and
Cericola
,
D.
,
2009
, “
Aging and Failure Mode of Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors During Accelerated Constant Load Tests
,”
J. Power Sources
,
195
(
3
), pp.
923
928
.
12.
El Mejdoubi
,
A.
,
Oukaour
,
A.
,
Chaoui
,
H.
,
Slamani
,
Y.
,
Sabor
,
J.
, and
Gualous
,
H.
,
2015
, “
Online Supercapacitor Diagnosis for Electric Vehicle Applications
,”
IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol.
,
65
(
6
), pp.
4241
4252
.
13.
Soualhi
,
A.
,
Makdessi
,
M.
,
German
,
R.
,
Rivas
,
R.
,
Razik
,
H.
,
Sari
,
A.
,
Venet
,
P.
, and
Clerc
,
G.
,
2018
, “
Health Monitoring of Capacitors and Supercapacitors Using Neo Fuzzy Neural Approach
,”
IEEE Trans. Ind. Inf.
,
14
(
1
), pp.
24
34
.
14.
Chaoui
,
H.
,
El Mejdoubi
,
A.
,
Oukaour
,
A.
, and
Gualous
,
H.
,
2016
, “
Online System Identification for Lifetime Diagnostic of Supercapacitors With Guaranteed Stability
,”
IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol.
,
24
(
6
), pp.
2094
2102
.
15.
El Mejdoubi
,
A.
,
Chaoui
,
H.
,
Gualous
,
H.
, and
Sabor
,
J.
,
2017
, “
Online Parameter Identification for Supercapacitor State-of-Health Diagnosis for Vehicular Applications
,”
IEEE Trans. Power Electron.
,
32
(
12
), pp.
9355
9363
.
16.
Zhang
,
L.
,
2016
, “
Modelling and State-of-Charge Estimation for Ultracapacitors in Electric Vehicles
,”
Ph.D. thesis
, University of Technology, Sydney, Ultimo, Australia.https://opus.lib.uts.edu.au/handle/10453/62381
17.
Rafik
,
F.
,
Gualous
,
H.
,
Gallay
,
R.
,
Crausaz
,
A.
, and
Berthon
,
A.
,
2007
, “
Frequency, Thermal and Voltage Supercapacitor Characterization and Modelling
,”
J. Power Sources
,
165
(
2
), pp.
928
934
.
18.
Oukaour
,
A.
,
Tala-Ighil
,
B.
,
AlSakka
,
M.
,
Gualous
,
M.
,
Gallay
,
R.
, and
Boudart
,
B.
,
2013
, “
Calendar Ageing and Health Diagnosis of Supercapacitor
,”
Electr. Power Syst. Res.
,
95
, pp.
330
338
.
19.
Bornard
,
G.
,
Couenne
,
N.
, and
Celle
,
F.
,
1988
, “
Regularly Persistent Observers for Bilinear Systems
,”
29th International Conference on New Trends in Nonlinear Control Theory
,
Nantes, France
, pp.
130
140
.
20.
Celle
,
F.
,
Gauthier
,
J.
,
Kazakos
,
D.
, and
Sallet
,
G.
,
1989
, ” “
Synthesis of Nonlinear Observers: A Harmonic-Analysis Approach
,”
Math. Syst. Theory
,
22
(
1
), pp.
291
322
.
21.
Besançon
,
G.
,
2007
, “
Nonlinear Observers and Applications
,”
Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences
, Vol.
363
,
Springer-Verlag
,
Berlin
.
22.
Besançon
,
G.
,
Bornard
,
G.
, and
Hammouri
,
H.
,
1996
, “
Observer Synthesis for a Class of Nonlinear Control Systems
,”
Eur. J. Control
,
2
(
3
), pp.
176
192
.
23.
Hammouri
,
H.
, and
Morales
,
J. D.
,
2002
, “
Topological Properties of Observer's Inputs
,”
Progress in Systems and Control Theory
,
Birkhauser
,
Boston, MA
.
24.
Zhang
,
Q.
,
2002
, “
Adaptive Observer for Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) Linear Time-Varying Systems
,”
IEEE Trans. Autom. Control
,
47
(
3
), pp.
525
529
.
25.
Khalil
,
H. K.
,
2001
,
Nonlinear Systems
,
Prentice Hall
,
Upper Saddle River, NJ
.
26.
Van Assche
,
V.
,
Ahmed-Ali
,
T.
,
Hann
,
C.
, and
Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue
,
F.
,
2011
, “
High Gain Observer Design for Nonlinear Systems With Time Varying Delayed Measurements
,”
18th IFAC World Congress
, Milan, Italy, pp.
692
696
.
27.
Nadri
,
M.
, and
Hammouri
,
H.
,
2003
, ” “
Design of a Continuous-Discrete Observer for State Affine Systems
,”
J. Appl. Math. Lett.
,
16
(
6
), pp.
967
974
.
28.
Maxwell Technologies, 2013, “
Datasheet BCAP 0350, doc NB:1017105.4, Standard Series Ultracapacitors
,” Maxwell Technologies Inc., San Diego, CA, accessed Nov. 1, 2018, www.maxwell.com/products/ultracapacitors/cells
29.
Hahn
,
M.
,
Kötz
,
R.
,
Gallay
,
R.
, and
Siggel
,
A.
,
2006
, ” “
Pressure Evolution in Propylene Carbonate Based Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors
,”
Electrochim. Acta
,
52
(
4
), pp.
1709
1712
.
30.
Torregrossa
,
D.
,
Toghill
,
K. E.
,
Amstutz
,
V.
,
Girault
,
H.
, and
Paolone
,
M.
,
2015
, ” “
Macroscopic Indicators of Fault Diagnosis and Ageing in Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors
,”
J. Energy Storage
,
2
, pp.
8
24
.
31.
Cericola
,
D.
,
Ruch
,
P. W.
,
Foelske-Schmitz
,
A.
,
Weingarth
,
D.
, and
Kötz
,
R.
,
2011
, “
Effect of Water on the Aging of Activated Carbon Based Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors During Constant Voltage Load Tests
,”
Int. J. Electrochem. Sci.
,
6
(4), pp.
988
996
.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230704688_Effect_of_Water_on_the_Aging_of_Activated_Carbon_Based_Electrochemical_Double_Layer_Capacitors_During_Constant_Voltage_Load_Tests
32.
German
,
R.
,
Venet
,
P.
,
Sari
,
A.
,
Briat
,
O.
, and
Vinassa
,
J.
,
2014
, “
Improved Supercapacitor Floating Ageing Interpretation Through Multipore Impedance Model Parameters Evolution
,”
IEEE Trans. Power Electron.
,
29
(
7
), pp.
3669
3678
.
You do not currently have access to this content.