New efforts have been made to build up prototypes of subcutaneous closed-loop systems for controlling blood glucose (BG) levels in type I diabetes mellitus (TIDM) patients with the development of clinically accurate continuous glucose monitors, automated micro-insulin dispenser (MID), and control algorithms. There is an urgency to develop new control algorithm to determine the desired dose of insulin for maintaining normal BG levels. As a solution to the above issue, a novel backstepping sliding mode Gaussian controller (BSMGC) is proposed whose gains vary dynamically with respect to the error signal. A feedback control law is formulated by a hybrid approach based on BSMGC. A ninth-order linearized state-space model of a nonlinear TIDM patient with the MID is formulated for the design of the BSMGC. This controller is evaluated, and the results are compared with other recently published control techniques. The output responses clearly reveal the better performance of the proposed method to control the BG level within the range of normoglycaemia in terms of accuracy, robustness and handling uncertainties.

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