Implementation of supplemental damping systems (e.g., the dynamic vibration absorbers (DVAs)) to mitigate excessive tall building vibrations induced by external dynamic loads (wind storms or earthquakes) has increased over the last several decades. A tuned liquid damper (TLD) is a specific type of the DVAs that consists of a rigid tank which is partially filled with a liquid, usually water. The sloshing liquid inside the tank provides inertia forces that counteract the forces acting on the structure, thus reducing the building motion. A single sway mode of vibration is usually targeted, however, for certain structures multiple modes may need to be suppressed. Moreover, the location of the TLD on the floor plate is important for certain modes, such as a torsionally dominate mode. In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) structure-TLD system model (3D-structure-TLD) is proposed where the TLDs can be positioned at any location on the structure allowing the most effective positions in reducing the structure's dynamic response to be determined. Therefore, the response of a 3D structure (tower, high-rise building, bridge, etc.) fitted with single or multiple TLD(s) and subjected to dynamic excitation can be predicted using the proposed FE model. For torsionally sensitive structure (eccentric/irregular structures), this type of 3D numerical analysis is highly recommended. Two nonlinear TLD models are employed to simulate the TLD and implemented in the FE model. The 3D-structure-TLD system model is validated for the cases of sinusoidal and random excitation forces using existing experimental test values. Results from the 3D-structure-TLD system model are found to be in excellent agreement with values obtained from experimental tests.

References

References
1.
Kareem
,
A.
, and
Sun
,
W. J.
,
1987
, “
Stochastic Response of Structures With Fluid Containing Appendages
,”
J. Sound Vib.
,
119
(
3
), pp.
389
408
.
2.
Kareem
,
A.
,
Kijewski
,
T.
, and
Tamura
,
Y.
,
1999
, “
Mitigation of Motions of Tall Buildings With Specific Examples of Recent Application
,”
Wind Struct.
,
2
(
3
), pp.
201
251
.
3.
Sun
,
L. M.
,
Fujino
,
Y.
,
Pacheco
,
B. M.
, and
Isobe
,
M.
,
1989
, “
Nonlinear Waves and Dynamic Pressures in Rectangular Tuned Liquid Dampers: Simulation and Experimental Verification
,”
Struct. Eng./Earthquake Eng.
,
6
(
2
), pp.
251
262
.
4.
Modi
,
V. J.
,
Welt
,
F.
, and
Irani
,
M. B.
,
1990
, “
On the Suppression of Vibrations Using Nutation Dampers
,”
J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn.
,
33
(
1–2
), pp.
273
282
.
5.
Sun
,
L. M.
,
Fujino
,
Y.
, and
Chaiseri
,
P.
,
1992
, “
Modeling of Tuned Liquid Damper (TLD)
,”
J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn.
,
43
(
1–3
), pp.
1883
1894
.
6.
Koh
,
C. G.
,
Mahatma
,
S.
, and
Wang
,
C. M.
,
1994
, “
Theoretical and Experimental Studies on Rectangular Liquid Dampers Under Arbitrary Excitations
,”
J. Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn.
,
23
(
1
), pp.
17
31
.
7.
Soong
,
T. T.
, and
Dargush
,
G. F.
,
1997
,
Passive Energy Dissipation Systems in Structural Engineering
,
Wiley
,
New York
.
8.
Tait
,
M. J.
,
2004
, “
The Performance of 1D and 2D Tuned Liquid Dampers
,” Ph.D. thesis, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
9.
Tait
,
M. J.
,
2008
, “
Modelling and Preliminary Design of a Structure-TLD System
,”
Eng. Struct.
,
30
(
10
), pp.
2644
2655
.
10.
Tait
,
M. J.
,
El Damatty
,
A. A.
, and
Isyumov
,
N.
,
2005
, “
An Investigation of Tuned Liquid Dampers Equipped With Damping Screens Subjected to 2D Excitation
,”
Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn.
,
34
(
7
), pp.
719
735
.
11.
Soliman
,
I. M.
,
2012
, “
Passive and Semi-Active Structure-Multiple Tuned Liquid Damper Systems
,” Ph.D. thesis, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
12.
Soliman
,
I. M.
,
Tait
,
M. J.
, and
El Damatty
,
A. A.
,
2013
, “
Three Dimensional Analysis of a High-Rise Building Equipped With Multiple Tuned Liquid Dampers Using Wind Tunnel Loads
,”
Canadian Society for Civil Engineers General Conference (CSCE)
, May 29–June 1, Montreal, QC, Canada.
13.
Ross
,
A. S.
,
2009
, “
Application of Tuned Liquid Dampers to Mitigate Wind-Induced Torsional Motion
,” M.Sc. thesis, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
14.
Kaneko
,
S.
, and
Ishikawa
,
M.
,
1999
, “
Modeling of Tuned Liquid Damper With Submerged Nets
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
121
(
3
), pp.
334
343
.
15.
Tait
,
M. J.
,
El Damatty
,
A. A.
,
Isyumov
,
N.
, and
Siddique
,
M. R.
,
2005
, “
Numerical Flow Models to Simulate Tuned Liquid Dampers (TLD) With Slat Screens
,”
J. Fluid Struct.
,
20
(
8
), pp.
1007
1023
.
16.
Tait
,
M. J.
,
El Damatty
,
A. A.
, and
Isyumov
,
N.
,
2004
, “
Testing of Tuned Liquid Damper With Screens and Development of Equivalent TMD Model
,”
Wind Struct.
,
7
(
4
), pp.
215
234
.
17.
Tait
,
M. J.
,
Isyumov
,
N.
, and
El Damatty
,
A. A.
,
2004
, “
The Efficiency and Robustness of a Unidirectional Tuned Liquid Damper and Modelling With an Equivalent TMD
,”
Wind Struct.
,
7
(
4
), pp.
235
250
.
18.
CSI (Computers and Structures, Inc.)
,
2004
,
SAP2000 Version 10 Integrated Finite Element Analysis and Design of Structures
,
CSI
,
Berkeley, CA
.
19.
Bathe
,
K. J.
, and
Bolourchi
,
S.
,
1979
, “
Large Displacement Analysis of Three-Dimensional Beam Structures
,”
Int. J. Mech. Methods Eng.
,
14
(7), pp.
961
986
.
20.
Bathe
,
K. J.
,
2003
,
Finite Element Procedures in Engineering Analysis
,
7th ed.
,
Prentice-Hall
, Toronto, Canada.
21.
Chopra
,
A. K.
,
2001
,
Dynamics of Structures: Theory and Applications to Earthquake Engineering
,
2nd ed.
,
Prentice-Hall
,
Toronto, ON, Canada
.
22.
Tait
,
M. J.
,
Isyumov
,
N.
, and
El Damatty
,
A. A.
,
2008
, “
Performance of Tuned Liquid Dampers
,”
J. Eng. Mech.
,
134
(
5
), pp.
417
425
.
23.
Warnitchai
,
P.
, and
Pinkaew
,
T.
,
1998
, “
Modeling of Liquid Sloshing in Rectangular Tanks With Flow-Dampening Devices
,”
Eng. Struct.
,
20
(
7
), pp.
593
600
.
24.
Ju
,
Y. K.
,
Yoon
,
S. W.
, and
Kim
,
S. D.
,
2004
, “
Experimental Evaluation of a Tuned Liquid Damper System
,”
Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. Struct. Build.
,
157
(
4
), pp.
251
262
.
25.
Lamb
,
H.
,
1932
,
Hydrodynamics
,
The University Press
,
Cambridge, UK
.
26.
Graham
,
E. W.
, and
Rodriguez
,
A. M.
,
1952
, “
The Characteristics of Fuel Motion Which Affect Airplane Dynamics
,”
ASME J. Appl. Mech.
,
19
(
3
), pp.
381
388
.
27.
Sun
,
L. M.
,
1991
, “
Semi-Analytical Modelling of Tuned Liquid Damper (TLD) With Emphasis on Damping of Liquid Sloshing
,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Tokyo, Tokyo.
28.
Warburton
,
G. B.
,
1982
, “
Optimum Absorber Parameters for Various Combinations of Response and Excitation Parameters
,”
Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn.
,
10
(
3
), pp.
381
401
.
29.
Noji
,
T.
,
Yoshida
,
H.
,
Tatsumi
,
E.
,
Kosaka
,
H.
, and
Hagiuda
,
H.
,
1998
, “
Study on Vibration Control Damper Utilizing Sloshing of Water
,”
Wind Eng.
,
37
, pp.
557
566
.
30.
Fediw
,
A. A.
,
Isyumov
,
N.
, and
Vickery
,
B. J.
,
1995
, “
Performance of a Tuned Sloshing Water Damper
,”
J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn.
,
57
(2–3), pp.
237
247
.
31.
Dean
,
R. G.
, and
Dalrymple
,
A. D.
,
1984
,
Water Wave Mechanics for Engineers and Scientists
,
1st ed.
,
Prentice-Hall, Inc.
,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
.
32.
Tait
,
M. J.
,
Isyumov
,
N.
, and
El Damatty
,
A. A.
,
2007
, “
Effectiveness of a 2D TLD and Its Numerical Modeling
,”
J. Struct. Eng.
,
133
(
2
), pp.
251
263
.
33.
Lepelletier
,
T. G.
, and
Raichlen
,
F.
,
1988
, “
Nonlinear Oscillations in Rectangular Tanks
,”
J. Eng. Mech.
,
114
(
1
), pp.
1
23
.
34.
Miles
,
J. W.
,
1967
, “
Surface Wave Damping in Closed Basins
,”
Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A
,
297
(
1451
), pp.
459
475
.
35.
Yu
,
J. K.
,
Wakahara
,
T.
, and
Reed
,
D. A.
,
1999
, “
A Non-Linear Numerical Model of the Tuned Liquid Damper
,”
Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn.
,
28
(
6
), pp.
671
686
.
36.
Yu
,
J. K.
,
1997
, “
Nonlinear Characteristics of Tuned Liquid Dampers
,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
37.
Fediw
,
A. A.
,
1992
, “
Performance of a One Dimensional Tuned Sloshing Water Damper
,” M.Sc. thesis, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
38.
Mizanur
,
R.
,
2007
, “
The Use of Tuned Liquid Dampers to Enhance the Seismic Performance of Concrete Rigid Frame Buildings
,” Ph.D. thesis, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
You do not currently have access to this content.