A novel control scheme for asymmetric bilateral teleoperation systems is developed based on linear models of the hardware, with considerations in the existence of communication time delays. The master and slave manipulators were modeled as linear single degree of freedom systems. The human user force was modeled based on the band limited availability of human motion, and the environmental force was modeled as a spring and damper combination based on the slave position. The configuration of the whole system represents a relatively general framework for the teleoperation systems. The main contribution of the work can be concluded as follows. First to deal with asymmetric systems in teleoperation, an impedance matching approach was applied to the master side dynamics, while a static error feedback gain was used to stabilize the slave side dynamics. Second, in the existence of bounded random time-varying delays, approaches and techniques based on the Lyapunov method proposed for network controlled systems are now proposed for bilateral teleoperation systems. Specifically, a Lyapunov functional is proposed with consideration for the upper and lower bound of random delays. Linear matrix inequality (LMI) techniques are used with rigorous stability proof to design the slave side controller control gains. Furthermore, the cone complementarity algorithm is used to deal with nonlinear terms within the LMI under the new formulation. Finally, the applications of the proposed algorithm to haptic devices are described thoroughly, and experimental results with comparisons to simulation results are demonstrated to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

References

References
1.
Wang
,
Q.
,
Broome
,
D.
, and
Daycock
,
I.
,
1991
, “
Adaptive Force Control of the PUMA 560 Industrial Robot Manipulator
,”
Proceedings of the International Conference on Control
, pp.
358
361
.
2.
Pan
,
Y.-J.
,
Canudas-de-Wit
,
C.
, and
Sename
,
O.
,
2006
, “
A New Predictive Approach for Bilateral Teleoperation With Applications to Drive-by-Wire Systems
,”
IEEE Trans. Rob.
,
22
(
6
), pp.
1146
1162
.10.1109/TRO.2006.886279
3.
Ware
,
J.
, and
Pan
,
Y.-J.
,
2011
, “
Realization of a Bilaterally Teleoperated Robotic Vehicle Platform With Passivity Control
,”
IET Control Theory Appl.
,
5
(
8
), pp.
494
501
.10.1049/iet-cta.2010.0265
4.
Ye
,
Y.
,
Pan
,
Y.-J.
,
Gupta
,
Y.
, and
Ware
,
J.
,
2011
, “
A Power Based Time Domain Passivity Control for Haptic Interfaces
,”
IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol.
,
19
(
4
), pp.
874
883
.10.1109/TCST.2010.2062513
5.
Hua
,
C.
, and
Liu
,
X. P.
,
2010
, “
Delay-Dependent Stability Criteria of Tele-Operation Systems With Unsymmetrical Time-Varying Delays
,”
IEEE Trans. Rob.
,
26
(
5
), pp.
925
932
.10.1109/TRO.2010.2053736
6.
Huang
,
J.
,
Shi
,
Y.
, and
Wu
,
J.
,
2012
, “
Transparent Virtual Coupler Design for Networked Haptic Systems With a Mixed Virtual Wall
,”
IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics
,
17
(
3
), pp.
480
487
.10.1109/TMECH.2012.2188640
7.
Walker
,
K.
,
Pan
,
Y.
, and
Gu
,
J.
,
2009
, “
Bilateral Teleoperation Over Networks Based on Stochastic Switching Approach
,”
IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics
,
14
(
5
), pp.
539
554
.10.1109/TMECH.2009.2007126
8.
Nohmi
,
M.
,
Ando
,
M.
, and
Bock
,
T.
,
2005
, “
Contact Task by Space Teleoperation Using Force Reflection of Communication Time Delay
,”
Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation
, pp.
193
198
.
9.
de Barros
,
P.
,
Lindeman
,
R.
, and
Ward
,
M.
,
2011
, “
Enhancing Robot Teleoperator Situation Awareness and Performance Using Vibro-Tactile and Graphical Feedback
,”
Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces
, pp.
47
54
.
10.
Anderson
,
R.
, and
Spong
,
M.
,
1989
, “
Bilateral Control of Teleoperators With Time Delay
,”
IEEE/ASME Trans. Autom. Control
,
34
(
5
), pp.
494
501
.10.1109/9.24201
11.
Takahashi
,
H.
,
Yonemura
,
T.
,
Sugita
,
N.
,
Mitsuishi
,
M.
,
Sora
,
S.
,
Morita
,
A.
, and
Mochizuki
,
R.
,
2008
, “
Master Manipulator With Higher Operability Designed for Micro Neuro Surgical System
,”
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
, pp.
3902
3907
.
12.
Chen
,
L.
,
Fujimoto
,
H.
,
Miwa
,
K.
,
Abe
,
T.
,
Sumi
,
A.
, and
Ito
,
Y.
,
2003
, “
A Dental Training System Using Virtual Reality
,”
Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation
, pp.
430
434
.
13.
Lew
,
J.
, and
Repperger
,
D.
,
2004
, “
Wave Variables Based Teleoperation With Time Delay: Application to Space Based Laser Maintenance
,”
Proceedings of the IEEE Aerospace Conference
, pp.
2912
2919
.
14.
Book
,
W.
,
Love
,
L.
, and
Farah
,
M.
,
1994
, “
A Teleoperation Testbed for Nuclear Waste Restoration
,”
Proceedings of the International Topical Meeting on Nuclear and Hazardous Waste Management
, pp.
1017
1021
.
15.
Wu
,
J.
,
Shi
,
Y.
,
Huang
,
J.
, and
Constantinescu
,
D.
,
2012
, “
Stochastic Stabilization for Bilateral Teleoperation Over Networks With Probabilistic Delays
,”
Mechatronics
,
22
, pp.
1050
1059
.10.1016/j.mechatronics.2012.08.010
16.
Wang
,
Y.
,
Sun
,
Z.
, and
Chou
,
W.
,
2010
, “
Robust Controller Design for Teleoperation Systems With Time-Varying Delays
,”
Proceedings of the International Conference on Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation
, pp.
266
269
.
17.
Azadegan
,
M.
,
Ozgoli
,
S.
, and
Taghirad
,
H.
,
2011
, “
Delay-Independent Robust Stability Analysis of Teleoperation
,”
Proceedings of the Chinese Control and Decision Conference
, pp.
4129
4133
.
18.
Chopra
,
N.
,
Spong
,
M.
,
Ortega
,
R.
, and
Barabanov
,
N.
,
2006
, “
On Tracking Performance in Bilateral Teleoperation
,”
IEEE Trans. Rob.
,
22
(
4
), pp.
861
866
.10.1109/TRO.2006.878942
19.
Tanner
,
N.
, and
Niemeyer
,
G.
,
2004
, “
High-Frequency Acceleration Feedback in Wave Variable Telerobotics
,”
IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics
,
11
(
2
), pp.
119
127
.10.1109/TMECH.2006.871086
20.
Ang
,
W.
,
Pradeep
,
P.
, and
Riviere
,
C.
,
2004
, “
Active Tremor Compensation in Microsurgery
,”
Proceedings of the 26th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS
, pp.
2783
2741
.
21.
Tang
,
B.
,
2007
, “
State Feedback Controller Design for Networked Control System With Random Network-Induced Delay and Packet Loss
,”
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Networking, Sensing, and Control
, pp.
798
802
.
22.
Feth
,
D.
,
Peer
,
A.
, and
Buss
,
M.
,
2010
, “
Incorporating Human Haptic Interaction Models Into Teleoperation Systems
,”
Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
, pp.
4257
4262
.
23.
Gao
,
Y.
,
Li
,
J.
,
Su
,
H.
, and
Li
,
J.
,
2011
, “
Development of a Teleoperation System Based on Virtual Environment
,”
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics
, pp.
766
771
.
24.
Sha Sadeghi
,
M.
,
Momeni
,
H.
, and
Amirifar
,
R.
,
2008
, “
h∞ and l1 Control of a Teleoperation System via LMIs
,”
Appl. Math. Comput.
,
206
(
2
), pp.
669
677
.10.1016/j.amc.2008.05.051
25.
Peng
,
C.
,
Tian
,
Y.
, and
Tade
,
M.
,
2008
, “
State Feedback Controller Design of Networked Control Systems With Interval Time-Varying Delay and Nonlinearity
,”
Int. J. Robust Nonlinear Control
,
18
(
12
), pp.
1285
1301
.10.1002/rnc.1278
26.
Peng
,
C.
,
Yue
,
D.
,
Tian
,
E.
, and
Gu
,
Z.
,
2009
, “
A Delay Distribution Based Stability Analysis and Synthesis Approach for Networked Control Systems
,”
J. Franklin Inst.
,
346
(
4
), pp.
349
365
.10.1016/j.jfranklin.2008.11.004
27.
Juang
,
J.
,
1994
,
Applied System Identification
,
Prentice Hall
,
Upper Saddle River, N.J
.
28.
Niemeyer
,
G.
, and
Slotine
,
J.
,
2004
, “
Telemanipulation With Time Delays
,”
Int. J. Rob. Res.
,
23
(
9
), pp.
873
890
.10.1177/0278364904045563
You do not currently have access to this content.