This paper presents a model of an electric variable valve timing (EVVT) system and its closed-loop control design with experimental validation. The studied EVVT uses a planetary gear system to control the engine cam timing. The main motivation of utilizing the EVVT system is its fast response time and the accurate timing control capability. This is critical for the combustion mode transition control between the spark ignition (SI) and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion, where the engine cam timing needs to follow a desired trajectory to accurately control the engine charge and recompression process. A physics-based model was developed to study the characteristics of the EVVT system, and a control oriented EVVT model, with the same structure as the physics-based one, was obtained using closed-loop system identification. The closed-loop control strategies were developed to control the EVVT to follow a desired trajectory. Both simulation and bench test results are included.

References

References
1.
Moriya
,
Y.
,
Watanabe
,
A.
,
Uda
,
H.
,
Kawamura
,
H.
,
Yoshiuka
,
M.
, and
Adachi
,
M.
,
1996
, “
A Newly Developed Intelligent Variable Valve Timing System—Continuously Controlled Cam Phasing as Applied to New 3 Liter Inline 6 Engine
,” SAE Technical Paper No. 960579.
2.
Dugdale
,
P. H.
,
Rademacher
,
R. J.
,
Price
,
B. R.
,
Subhedar
,
J. W.
, and
Duguay
,
R. L.
,
2005
, “
Ecotec 2.4L VVT: A Variant of GM's Global 4-Cylinder Engine
,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2005-01-1941.
3.
Hattori
,
M.
,
Inoue
,
T.
,
Mashiki
,
Z.
,
Takenaka
,
A.
,
Urushihata
,
H.
,
Morino
,
S.
, and
Inohara
,
T.
,
2008
, “
Devalopment of Variable Valve Timing System Controlled by Electric Motor
,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2008-01-1358.
4.
Theobald
,
M.
,
Lequesns
,
B.
, and
Henry
,
R.
,
1994
, “
Control of Engine Load via Electromagnetic Valve Actuators
,” SAE Technical Paper No. 940816.
5.
Sun
,
Z.
, and
Kuo
,
T.
,
2010
, “
Transient Control of Electro-Hydraulic Fully Flexible Engine Valve Actuation System
,”
IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol.
,
18
(
3
), pp.
613
621
.10.1109/TCST.2009.2025188
6.
Ma
,
J.
,
Zhu
,
G.
, and
Schock
,
H.
,
2010
, “
A Dynamic Model of an Electro-Pneumatic Valve Actuator for Internal Combustion Engines
,”
ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas. Control
,
132
(
2
),p.
021007
.10.1115/1.4000816
7.
Pierik
,
R. J.
, and
Wilson
,
J. O.
,
1994
, “
Engine Timing Drive With Fixed and Variable Phasing
,” U.S. Patent No. 5,327,859.
8.
Urushihata
,
H.
, and
Lida
,
H.
,
2008
, “
Variable Valve Timing Control Device of Internal Combustion Engine
,” U.S. Patent No. 7,363,896.
9.
Zhang
,
Y.
,
Xie
,
H.
,
Zhou
,
N.
,
Chen
,
T.
, and
Zhao
,
H.
,
2007
, “
Study of SI-HCCI-SI Transition on a Port Fuel Injection Engine Equipped With 4VVAS
,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2007-01-0199.
10.
Cairns
,
A.
, and
Blaxill
,
H.
,
2007
, “
The Effects of Two-Stage Cam Profile Switching and External EGR on SI-CAI Combustion Transitions
,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2007-01-0187.
11.
Shaver
,
G. M.
,
Caton
,
P. A.
,
Edwards
,
C. F.
,
Gerdes
,
J. C.
, and
Roelle
,
M. J.
,
2005
, “
Dynamic Modeling of Residual-Affected Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines With Variable Valve Actuation
,”
ASME J. Dyn., Meas., Control
,
127
(
5
), pp.
374
381
.10.1115/1.1979511
12.
Shaver
,
G. M.
,
2005
, “
Physics Based Modeling and Control of Residual-Affected HCCI Engines Using Variable Valve Actuation
,” Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA.
13.
Law
,
D.
,
Kemp
,
D.
,
Allen
,
J.
,
Kirkpatrick
,
G.
, and
Copland
,
T.
,
2001
, “
Controlled Combustion in an IC-Engine With a Fully Variable Valve Train
,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2001-01-0251.
14.
Milovanovic
,
N.
,
Chen
,
R.
, and
Turner
,
J.
,
2004
, “
Influence of the Variable Valve Timing Strategy on the Control of a Homogeneous Charge Compression (HCCI) Engine
,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2004-01-1899.
15.
Agrell
,
F.
,
Angstrom
,
H.
,
Eriksson
,
B.
,
Wikander
,
J.
, and
Linderyd
,
J.
,
2003
, “
Integrated Simulation and Engine Test of Closed Loop HCCI Control by Aid of Variable Valve Timings
,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2003-01-0748.
16.
Zhu
,
G.
, and
Skelton
,
R. E.
,
1994
, “
Integrated Modeling and Control for the Large Spacecraft Laboratory Experiment Facility
,”
J. Guid. Control Dyn.
,
17
(
3
), pp.
442
450
.10.2514/3.21219
17.
Zhu
,
G.
,
Grigoriadis
,
K. M.
, and
Skelton
,
R. E.
,
1995
, “
Covariance Control Design for Hubble Space Telescope
,”
J. Guid. Control Dyn.
,
18
(
2
), pp.
230
236
.10.2514/3.21374
18.
Zhu
,
G.
,
Rotea
,
M. A.
, and
Skelton
,
R.
,
1997
, “
A Convergent Algorithm for the Output Covariance Constraint Control Problem
,”
SIAM J. Control Optim.
,
35
(
1
), pp.
341
361
.10.1137/S0363012994263974
19.
Ren
,
Z.
, and
Zhu
,
G.
,
2011
, “
Integrated System ID and Control Design for an IC Engine Variable Valve Timing System
,”
ASME J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control
,
133
(
2
), p.
021012
.10.1115/1.4003263
20.
Skelton
,
R. E.
, and
Anderson
,
B. D. O.
,
1986
, “
Q-Markov Covariance Equivalent Realization
,”
Int. J. Control
,
44
(
5
), pp.
1477
1490
.10.1080/00207178608933680
21.
Liu
,
K.
, and
Skelton
,
R. E.
,
1991
, “
Identification and control of NASA's ACES structure
,”
Proceedings of American Control Conference
, Boston, MA.
22.
Zhu
,
G.
,
Skelton
,
R. E.
, and
Li
,
P.
,
1995
, “
Q-Markov Cover Identification Using Pseudo-Random Binary Signals
,”
Int. J. Control
,
62
(
1
), pp.
1273
1290
.10.1080/00207179508921599
23.
Zhu
,
G.
,
2000
, “
Weighted Multirate q-Markov Cover Identification Using PRBS—An Application to Engine Systems
,”
Math. Probl. Eng.
,
6
, pp.
201
224
.10.1155/S1024123X00001332
24.
Shigley
,
J. E.
, and
Mischke
,
C. R.
,
2001
,
Mechanical Engineering Design
,
6th ed.
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
25.
Phillips
,
C. L.
, and
Harbor
,
R. D.
,
2000
,
Feedback Control System
,
4th ed.
,
Prentice–Hall
,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
.
26.
Meerkov
,
S.
, and
Runolfsson
,
T.
,
1989
, “
Output Residence Time Control
,”
IEEE Trans. Autom. Control
,
34
, pp.
1171
1176
.10.1109/9.40746
27.
Wilson
,
D. A.
,
1989
, “
Convolution and Hankel Operator Norms for Linear Systems
,”
IEEE Trans. Autom. Control
,
34
, pp.
94
97
.10.1109/9.8655
28.
Zhu
,
G.
,
Corless
,
M.
, and
Skelton
,
R.
,
1989
, “
Robustness Properties of Covariance Controllers
,”
Proceedings of Allerton Conference
, Monticello, IL.
29.
Ren
,
Z.
, and
Zhu
,
G.
,
2009
, “
Pseudo-Random Binary Sequence Closed-Loop System Identification Error With Integration Control
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part I: J. Syst. Control Eng.
,
233
, pp.
877
884
.10.1243/09596518JSCE794
30.
Codrons
,
B.
,
Anderson
,
B. D. O.
, and
Gevers
,
M.
,
2002
, “
Closed-Loop Identification With an Unstable or Nonminimum Phase Controller
,”
Automatica
,
38
, pp.
2127
2137
.10.1016/S0005-1098(02)00137-1
31.
Peterson
,
W. W.
,
1961
,
Error Correcting Coding
,
MIT Technical Press
,
Cambridge, MA
.
32.
Anderson
,
B. D. O.
, and
Skelton
,
R. E.
,
1988
, “
The Generation of all q-Markov Covers
,”
IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.
,
35
(
4
), pp.
375
384
.10.1109/31.1752
33.
King
,
A. M.
,
Desai
,
U. B.
, and
Skelton
,
R. E.
,
1988
, “
A Generalized Approach to q-Markov Covariance Equivalent Realization for Discrete Systems
,”
Automatica
,
24
(
4
), pp.
507
515
.10.1016/0005-1098(88)90095-7
34.
Shi
,
Y.
, and
Burton
,
R.
,
2013
, “
Modeling and Robust Discrete-Time Sliding-Mode Control Design for a Fluid Power Electrohydraulic Actuator (EHA) System
,”
IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron.
,
18
(
1
), pp.
1
10
.10.1109/TMECH.2011.2160959
You do not currently have access to this content.