This paper develops feedback controllers for walking in 3D, on level ground, with energy efficiency as the performance objective. Assume The Robot Is A Sphere (ATRIAS) 2.1 is a new robot that has been designed for the study of 3D bipedal locomotion, with the aim of combining energy efficiency, speed, and robustness with respect to natural terrain variations in a single platform. The robot is highly underactuated, having 6 actuators and, in single support, 13 degrees of freedom. Its sagittal plane dynamics are designed to embody the spring loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP), which has been shown to provide a dynamic model of the body center of mass during steady running gaits of a wide diversity of terrestrial animals. A detailed dynamic model is used to optimize walking gaits with respect to the cost of mechanical transport (CMT), a dimensionless measure of energetic efficiency, for walking speeds ranging from 0.5 to 1.4 . A feedback controller is designed that stabilizes the 3D walking gaits, despite the high degree of underactuation of the robot. The 3D results are illustrated in simulation. In experiments on a planarized (2D) version of the robot, the controller yielded stable walking.
Performance Analysis and Feedback Control of ATRIAS, A Three-Dimensional Bipedal Robot
Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received December 3, 2012; final manuscript received October 7, 2013; published online December 9, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Luis Alvarez.
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Ramezani, A., Hurst, J. W., Akbari Hamed, K., and Grizzle, J. W. (December 9, 2013). "Performance Analysis and Feedback Control of ATRIAS, A Three-Dimensional Bipedal Robot." ASME. J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. March 2014; 136(2): 021012. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4025693
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