A multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) sliding mode control scheme was developed with guaranteed stability to simultaneously control air-to-fuel ratio (AFR) and fuel ratios to desired levels under various air flow disturbances by regulating the mass flow rates of engine port-fuel-injection (PFI) and direct injection (DI) systems. The sliding mode control performance was compared with a baseline multiloop proportional integral differential (PID) controller through simulations and showed improvements. A four cylinder mean value engine model and the proposed sliding mode controller were implemented into a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulator and a target engine control module, and HIL simulations were conducted to validate the developed controller for potential implementation in an automotive engine.

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