The aim of this article is to present the theoretical and experimental work related to the vacuum system used for controlling the actuation of pneumatic valves in internal combustion engines in order to obtain a physical model of this system. In this context, these valves control the turbocharger operation in a two-stage sequential turbocharged diesel engine. With the purpose of providing the model with information, several characterization tests of the elements that integrate the vacuum system were performed. Related to the theoretical contents, two models of the vacuum system were developed and compared, either by using a 1D or a 0D approach. Within the experimental section the obtained instantaneous pressure in the actuator chamber of four air valves and two storage reservoirs of the circuit are measured and compared with the modeling results. Since the simulations show good agreement when comparing the instantaneous pressure evolutions and valve movement with the experimental data, the model can be used to predict the behavior of the vacuum system. Finally, the model is used to optimize the transient turbocharger sequential operation under real engine running conditions. The simulation results predict with accuracy the measurements acquired in an engine test bench. Therefore a consistent methodology has been established in order to reproduce the vacuum system behavior and can be used as a designing tool for complex applications devoted to engine controlling tasks.

1.
Baert
,
R. S.
,
Beckman
,
D.
, and
Veen
,
A.
, 1996, “
EGR Technology for Lowest Emissions
,” TNO Paper No. VM9607.
2.
Payri
,
F.
,
Galindo
,
J.
, and
Serrano
,
J. R.
, 2000, “
Variable Geometry Turbine Modelling and Control for Turbocharged Diesel Engines Transient Operation
,”
Thermo- and Fluid-Dynamic Processes in Diesel Engines
,
J. H.
Whitelaw
,
F.
Payri
, and
J. M.
Desantes
, eds.,
Springer
,
Valencia
, pp.
189
210
.
3.
Subramanian
,
S. C.
,
Darbha
,
S.
, and
Rajagopal
,
K. R.
, 2004, “
Modeling the Pneumatic Subsystem of a Scam Air Brake System
,”
ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control
0022-0434,
126
(
1
), pp.
36
46
.
4.
Gerdes
,
J. C.
, and
Hedrick
,
J. K.
, 1999, “
Brake System Modeling for Simulation and Control
,”
ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control
0022-0434,
121
(
3
), pp.
496
503
.
5.
Payri
,
F.
,
Benajes
,
J.
,
Galindo
,
J.
, and
Serrano
,
J. R.
, 2002, “
Modelling of Turbocharged Diesel Engines in Transient Operation. Part 2: Wave Action Model for Calculating the Transient Operation in a HSDI Engine
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D (J. Automob. Eng.)
0954-4070,
216
(
6
), pp.
479
493
.
6.
Osborne
,
R. P.
, and
Morris
,
T.
, 2002, “
Aspects of EGR Control on Turbocharged Light-Duty Diesel Engines
,”
Turbochargers and Turbocharging
, Vol.
VII
,
Institution of Mechanical Engineers
,
London
, C602/013, pp.
249
266
.
7.
Tashima
,
S.
,
Tadokoro
,
T.
,
Okimoto
,
H.
, and
Niwa
,
Y.
, 1991, “
Development of Sequential Twin Turbo System for Rotatory Engine
,” SAE Paper No. 910624.
8.
Benvenuto
,
G.
, and
Campora
,
U.
, 2002, “
Dynamic Simulation of a High-Performance Sequentially Turbocharged Marine Diesel Engine
,”
Int. J. Engine Res.
1468-0874,
3
(
3
), pp.
115
125
.
9.
Galindo
,
J.
,
Climent
,
H.
,
Guardiola
,
C.
, and
Doménech
,
J.
, 2008, “
Strategies for Improving the Mode Transition in a Sequential Parallel Turbocharged Automotive Diesel Engine
,”
Int. J. Automot. Techn.
,
9
, pp.
745
772
.
10.
Galindo
,
J.
,
Serrano
,
J. R.
,
Arnau
,
F. J.
, and
Piqueras
,
P.
, 2009, “
Description of a Semi-Independent Time Discretization Methodology for a One-Dimensional Gas Dynamic Model
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
0742-4795,
133
(
3
), p.
034504
.
11.
McCloy
,
D.
, and
Martin
,
H. R.
, 1980,
Control of Fluid Power: Analysis and Design
,
2nd ed.
,
Ellis Horwood Limited
,
New York
.
12.
Kotwicki
,
A. J.
, and
Rusell
,
J.
,1998, “
Vacuum EGR Valve Actuator Model
,” SAE Paper No. 981438.
13.
Ye
,
N.
,
Scavarda
,
S.
,
Betemps
,
M.
, and
Jutard
,
A.
, 1992, “
Models of a Pneumatic PWM Solenoid Valve for Engineering Applications
,”
ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control
0022-0434,
114
(
4
), pp.
680
688
.
14.
Lax
,
P. D.
, and
Wendroff
,
B.
, 1964, “
Systems of Conservation Laws
,”
Commun. Pure Appl. Math.
0010-3640,
17
, pp.
381
398
.
You do not currently have access to this content.