A control-oriented model of a typical four-speed automatic transmission is developed by using the bond graph modeling method. The planetary gear set model utilizes the Karnopp friction model for hydraulic and one-way clutches, in order to provide a favorable computing efficiency. The full gear set model is reduced for various phases of the park/reverse and park/drive engagements. The reduced gear set models and linearized torque converter model are used as a basis for an algebraic analysis of the engagement dynamics. The analysis is originally conducted for the basic case of fully applied brake, and it is then extended by an analysis of the influence of wheel dynamics in the brake-off case. The analysis results are verified by computer simulations and experiments.

1.
Hrovat
,
D.
, and
Tobler
,
W. E.
, 1991, “
Bond Graph Modeling of Automotive Power Trains
,”
J. Franklin Inst.
0016-0032,
328
, pp.
623
662
.
2.
Hrovat
,
D.
,
Asgari
,
J.
, and
Fodor
,
M. G.
, 2000, “
Automotive Mechatronics Systems
,”
Mechatronics Systems, Techniques and Applications
,
C. T.
Leondes
, ed.,
Gordon and Breach Science Publishers
,
New York
, pp.
1
98
.
3.
Cho
,
D.
, and
Hedrick
,
J. K.
, 1989, “
Automotive Powertrain Modeling for Control
,”
ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control
0022-0434,
111
, pp.
568
576
.
4.
Yi
,
K.
,
Shin
,
B.-K.
, and
Lee
,
K.
, 2000, “
Estimation of Turbine Torque of Automatic Transmission Using Nonlinear Observers
,”
ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control
0022-0434,
122
, pp.
276
283
.
5.
Watechagit
,
S.
, and
Srinivasan
,
K.
, 2003, “
On-line Estimation of Operating Variables for Stepped Automatic Transmissions
,”
Proc. 2003 IEEE Conference on Control Applications (CCA 2003)
,
Istanbul, Turkey
, June 23–25,
IEEE
,
Piscataway, NJ
, Vol.
1
, pp.
279
284
.
6.
Karnopp
,
D. C.
,
Margolis
,
D. L.
, and
Rosenberg
,
R.
, 1990,
System Dynamics—A Unified Approach
,
John Wiley and Sons
,
New York
.
7.
Karnopp
,
D. C.
, 1985, “
Computer Simulation of Stick-Slip Friction in Mechanical Dynamic Systems
,”
ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control
0022-0434,
107
, pp.
100
103
.
8.
Deur
,
J.
,
Asgari
,
J.
, and
Hrovat
,
D.
, 2003, “
Modeling of an Automotive Planetary Gear Set Based on Karnopp Model for Clutch Friction
,”
Proc. 2003 ASME Int. Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (IMECE2003)
,
Washington D.C.
, November 15–21,
ASME
,
New York
, Vol.
2
.
9.
Heisler
H.
, 2002,
Advanced Vehicle Technology
,
2nd ed.
,
SAE International
, Warrendale, PA.
10.
Deur
,
J.
,
Asgari
,
J.
, and
Hrovat
,
D.
, 2006, “
Modeling and Analysis of Automatic Transmission Engagement Dynamics—Nonlinear Case Including Validation
,”
ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control
0022-0434,
128
, pp.
251
262
.
11.
Ishihara
,
T.
,
Shindo
,
Y.
, and
Ito
,
H.
, 1979, “
A Fundamental Consideration on Shift Mechanism of Automatic Transmission
,”
SAE Trans.
0096-736X,
88
, pp.
219
229
.
12.
Benford
,
L. H.
, and
Leising
,
M. B.
, 1972, “
The Lever Analogy: A New Tool in Transmission Analysis
,” SAE Paper No. 720044.
13.
Choi
,
J-H.
, and
Bryant
,
M. D.
, 2002, “
Combining Lumped Parameter Bond Graphs with Finite Element Shafts in a Gearbox Model
,”
Comput. Model. Eng. Sci.
1526-1492,
3
, pp.
431
446
.
14.
Berger
,
E. J.
,
Sadeghi
,
F.
, and
Krousgrill
,
C. M.
, 1997, “
Analytical and Numerical Modeling of Engagement of Rough, Permeable, Grooved Wet Clutches
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
0742-4787,
119
, pp.
143
148
15.
Armstrong-Hélouvry
,
B.
,
Dupont
,
P.
, and
Canudas de Wit
,
C.
, 1994, “
A Survey of Models, Analysis Tools and Compensation Methods for the Control of Machines with Friction
,”
Automatica
0005-1098,
30
, pp.
1083
1138
.
16.
Haessig
,
D. A.
, and
Friedland
,
B.
, 1991, “
On the Modeling and Simulation of Friction
,”
ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control
0022-0434,
113
, pp.
354
362
.
17.
Hrovat
,
D.
, and
Tobler
,
W. E.
, 1985, “
Bond Graph Modeling and Computer Simulation of Automotive Torque Converter
,”
J. Franklin Inst.
0016-0032,
319
, pp.
93
114
.
18.
Deur
,
J.
,
Hrovat
,
D.
, and
Asgari
,
J.
, 2002, “
Analysis of Torque Converter Dynamics
,”
Proc. of 2002 ASME Int. Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (IMECE2002)
,
New Orleans, LO
, November 17–22,
ASME
,
New York
, Vol.
2
.
19.
Kovač
,
P.
, 2002, “
Modeling of Dynamic Behavior of an Automatic Transmission Gear Set
,” B.Sc. thesis (in Croatian), University of Zagreb, Croatia.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.