In a conventional bilateral teleoperation, transmission delay over the Internet can potentially cause instability. A wave variable algorithm guarantees teleoperation stability under varying transmission delay at the cost of poor transient performance. Adding a predictor on the master side can reduce this undesirable side effect, but that would require a slave model. An inaccurate slave model used in the predictor as well as variations in transmission delay, both of which are likely under realistic situations, can result in steady-state errors. A direct drift control algorithm is used to drive this error to zero, regardless of the source of the error. A semi-adaptive predictor that can distinguish between free space and a rigid contact environment is used to provide a more accurate force feedback on the master side. A full adaptive predictor is also used that estimates the environmental force using recursive least squares with a forgetting factor. This research presents the experimental results and evaluations of the previously mentioned wave-variable-based methods under a realistic operation environment using a real master and slave. The algorithm proposed is innovative in that it takes advantage of the strengths of several control methods to build a promising bilateral teleoperation setup that can function under varying transmission delay, modeling error, and changing environment. Success could lead to practical applications in various fields, such as space-based remote control, and telesurgery.
Internet-Based Bilateral Teleoperation Based on Wave Variable With Adaptive Predictor and Direct Drift Control
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Ching, H., and Book, W. J. (September 28, 2005). "Internet-Based Bilateral Teleoperation Based on Wave Variable With Adaptive Predictor and Direct Drift Control." ASME. J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. March 2006; 128(1): 86–93. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2168161
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