In a conventional bilateral teleoperation, transmission delay over the Internet can potentially cause instability. A wave variable algorithm guarantees teleoperation stability under varying transmission delay at the cost of poor transient performance. Adding a predictor on the master side can reduce this undesirable side effect, but that would require a slave model. An inaccurate slave model used in the predictor as well as variations in transmission delay, both of which are likely under realistic situations, can result in steady-state errors. A direct drift control algorithm is used to drive this error to zero, regardless of the source of the error. A semi-adaptive predictor that can distinguish between free space and a rigid contact environment is used to provide a more accurate force feedback on the master side. A full adaptive predictor is also used that estimates the environmental force using recursive least squares with a forgetting factor. This research presents the experimental results and evaluations of the previously mentioned wave-variable-based methods under a realistic operation environment using a real master and slave. The algorithm proposed is innovative in that it takes advantage of the strengths of several control methods to build a promising bilateral teleoperation setup that can function under varying transmission delay, modeling error, and changing environment. Success could lead to practical applications in various fields, such as space-based remote control, and telesurgery.

1.
Ferrell
,
W. R.
, 1966, “
Delay Force Feedback
,”
IEEE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics
,
8
, pp.
449
455
.
2.
Smith
,
J. M.
, 1957, “
Closer Control of Loops With Dead Time
,”
Chem. Eng. Prog.
0360-7275,
53
(
5
), pp.
217
219
.
3.
Oboe
,
R.
, and
Fiorini
,
P.
, 1998, “
A Design and Control Environment for Internet-Based Telerobotics
,”
Int. J. Robot. Res.
0278-3649,
17
(
4
), pp.
433
339
.
4.
Llewellyn
,
F. B.
, 1952, “
Some Fundamental Properties of Transmission Systems
,”
Proc. IRE
0096-8390,
40
(
5
), pp.
271
283
.
5.
Imaida
,
T.
,
Yokokohji
,
Y.
,
Doi
,
T.
,
Oda
,
M.
, and
Yoshikawa
,
T.
, 2004, “
Ground-Space Bilateral Teleoperation of ETS-VII Robot Arm by Direct Bilateral Coupling Under 7-S Time Delay Condition
,”
IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom.
1042-296X,
20
(
3
), pp.
499
511
.
6.
Leung
,
G. M. H.
,
et al.
, 1995, “
Bilateral Controller for Teleoperators With Time Delay via μ-Synthesis
,”
IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom.
1042-296X,
11
, pp.
105
116
.
7.
Kim
,
W. S.
,
Hannaford
,
B.
, and
Bejczy
,
A. K.
, 1992, “
Force Reflection and Shared Compliant Control in Operating Telemanipulators With Time Delay
,”
IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom.
1042-296X,
8
, pp.
176
185
.
8.
Tsumaki
,
Y.
,
Hoshi
,
Y.
,
Naruse
,
H.
, and
Uchiyama
,
M.
, 1996, “
Virtual Reality Based Teleoperation Which Tolerates Geometrical Modeling Errors
,”
Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
,
Osaka
, November 4–8, Vol.
3
, pp.
1023
1030
.
9.
Funda
,
J.
, and
Paul
,
R. P.
, 1991, “
Model-Based, Delay-Tolerant Teleoperation in Unstructured Environments
,”
Proceedings of 6th Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference
, May 22–24,
IEEE
,
Ljubljana
, Vol.
2
, pp.
908
911
.
10.
Kotoku
,
T.
, 1992, “
A Predictive Display With Force Feedback and Its Application to Remote Manipulation System With Transmission Time Delay
,”
Proceedings of 1992 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
,
Raleigh
, NC, July 7–10,
IEEE
,
New York
, pp.
239
246
.
11.
Penin
,
L. F.
,
Matsumoto
,
K.
, and
Wakabayashi
,
S.
, 2000, “
Force Reflection for Time-Delayed Teleoperation of Space Robots
,”
Proceedings of 2000 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
, San Francisco, April 24–28,
IEEE
,
New York
, Vol.
4
, pp.
3120
3125
.
12.
Anderson
,
R. J.
, and
Spong
,
M. W.
, 1989, “
Bilateral Control of Teleoperators With Time Delay
,”
IEEE Trans. Autom. Control
0018-9286,
34
(
5
),
494
501
.
13.
Niemeyer
,
G.
, and
Slotine
,
J. E.
, 1991, “
Stable Adaptive Teleoperation
,”
IEEE J. Ocean. Eng.
0364-9059,
16
(
1
), pp.
152
162
.
14.
Lawn
,
C. A.
, and
Hannaford
,
B.
, 1993, “
Performance Testing of Passive Communication and Control in Teleoperation With Time Delay
,”
Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
, Atlanta, May 2–6,
IEEE
, Vol.
3
, pp.
776
783
.
15.
Benedetti
,
C.
,
Franchini
,
M.
, and
Fiorini
,
P.
, 2001, “
Stable Tracking in Variable Time-Delay Teleoperation
,”
Proceedings of 2001 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
, Maui, Oct. 29–Nov. 3,
IEEE
,
New York
, Vol.
4
, pp.
2252
2257
.
16.
Lew
,
J. Y.
, and
Repperger
,
D.
, 2004, “
Wave Variables Based Teleoperation With Time Delay: Application to Space Based Laser Maintenance
,” IEEEAC Paper No. 1236, Version, February.
17.
Ganjetar
,
S.
,
Momeni
,
H.
, and
Janabi-Sharill
,
F.
, 2002, “
Teleoperation Systems Design Using Augmented Wave-Variables and Smith Predictor Method for Reducing Time-Delay Effects
,”
Proceedings of 2002 IEEE, International Symposium on Intelligent Control
, Vancouver, Oct. 27–30,
IEEE
,
New York
, pp.
333
338
.
18.
Munir
,
S.
, and
Book
,
W. J.
, 2001, “
Wave-Based Teleoperation With Prediction
,”
Proceedings of the American Control Conference
, Arlington, VA, June 25–27,
IEEE
, Vol.
6
, pp.
4605
4611
.
19.
Arioui
,
H.
,
Kheddar
,
A.
, and
Mammar
,
S.
, 2002, “
A Predictive Wave-Based Approach for Time Delayed Virtual Environments Haptics Systems
,”
Proceedings of 2002 IEEE, International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication
, Berlin, Sept. 25–27,
IEEE
,
New York
, pp.
134
139
.
20.
Yokokohji
,
Y.
,
Imaida
,
T.
, and
Yoshikawa
,
T.
, 1999, “
Bilateral Teleoperation Under Time-Varying Communication Delay
,”
Proceedings of 1999 IEEE/RSJ, International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
, Kyongju, October 17–21,
IEEE
,
New York
, Vol. 3, pp.
1854
1859
.
21.
Yokokohji
,
Y.
,
Imaida
,
T.
, and
Yoshikawa
,
T.
, 2000, “
Bilateral Control With Energy Balance Monitoring Under Time-Varying Communication Delay
,”
Proceedings of 2000 IEEE, International Conference on Robotics and Automation
, San Francisco, April,
IEEE
,
New York
, Vol.
3
, pp.
2684
2689
.
22.
Mirfakhrai
,
T.
, and
Payandeh
,
S.
, 2002, “
A Delay Prediction Approach for Teleoperation Over the Internet
,”
Proceedings of 2002 IEEE, International Conference on Robotics and Automation
, Washington DC, May,
IEEE
,
New York
, Vol.
2
, pp.
2178
2183
.
23.
Kosuge
,
K.
,
Murayama
,
H.
, and
Takeo
,
K.
, 1996, “
Bilateral Feedback Control of Telemanipulators via Computer Network
,”
Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
, Osaka, November 4–8, Vol.
3
, pp.
1380
1385
.
You do not currently have access to this content.