Maintaining proper membrane humidity is crucial to ensure optimal operation of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell system. A membrane humidifier using the fuel cell exhaust gas to humidify the dry air is studied in this paper. We first develop a thermodynamic model, which captures the crucial dynamic variables of the humidifier, including the pressure, flow rate, temperature, and relative humidity of the air flow. Steady-state simulations are then conducted to optimize the humidifier design. Subsequently, dynamic simulations are performed to predict the behavior of the humidifier during transient operations typical for automotive applications. A simple proportional controller was designed to control the humidifier operation.

1.
T. V.
Nguyen
and
R. E.
White
, 1993, “
A Water and Heat Management Model for Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cells
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
0013-4651,
140
, No.
8
, pp.
2178
2186
.
2.
T. E.
Springer
,
T. A.
Zawodzinski
, and
S.
Gottesfeld
, 1991, “
Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Model
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
0013-4651,
138
, No.
8
, pp.
2334
2342
.
3.
M.
Ceraolo
,
C.
Miulli
, and
A.
Pozio
, 2003, “
Modelling Static and Dynamic Behavior of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells on the Basis of Electro-chemical Description
,”
J. Power Sources
0378-7753,
113
, pp.
131
144
.
4.
J. T.
Pukrushpan
,
H.
Peng
, and
A. G.
Stefanopoulou
, “
Simulation and Analysis of Transient Fuel Cell System Performance Based on a Dynamic Reactant Flow Model
,”
Proceeding of 2002 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition
, New Orleans, Louisiana.
5.
P.
Sridhar
,
R.
Perumal
,
N.
Rajalakshmi
,
M.
Raja
, and
K. S.
Dhathathreyan
, 2001, “
Humidification Studies on Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell
,”
J. Power Sources
0378-7753,
101
, pp.
72
78
.
6.
K.
Broka
and
P.
Ekdunge
, 1997,
Oxygen and Hydrogen Permeation Properties and Water Uptake of Nafion 117 Membrane and Recast Film for PEM Fuel Cell
,
Sweden
, Chapman & Hall.
7.
G. J. M.
Janssen
and
M. L. J.
Overvelde
, 2001, “
Water Transport in the Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cell: Measurements of the Effective Drag Coefficient
,”
J. Power Sources
0378-7753,
101
, pp.
117
125
.
8.
C. S.
Fadley
and
R. A.
Wallace
, “
Electopolymer Studies-II. Electrical Conductivity of a Polystyrene Sulfonic Acid Membrane
,” Journal of Electrochemical Society, Solid State Science, December, 1968.
9.
D. R.
Morris
and
X.
Sun
, 1993, “
Water-Sorption and Transport Properties of Nafion 117H
,”
J. Appl. Polym. Sci.
0021-8995,
50
, pp.
1445
1452
.
10.
S.
Shimpalee
and
S.
Dutta
, 2000, “
Numerical Prediction of Temperature Distribution in PEM Fuel Cells
,”
Journal of Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications
,
38
, pp.
111
128
.
11.
S.
Ahmed
,
J.
Kopasz
,
R.
Kumar
, and
M.
Krumpelt
, 2002, “
Water Balance in a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell System
,”
J. Power Sources
0378-7753,
112
, pp.
519
530
.
12.
R. A.
Dubose
,
Enthalpy Wheel Humidifiers
, Presentation from 2002 Fuel Cell Seminar.
13.
D.
Chu
and
R. Z.
Jiang
, 1999, “
Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) Stacks, Part I. Evaluation and Simulation of an Air-Breathing PEMFC Stack
,”
J. Power Sources
0378-7753,
83
, pp.
128
133
.
14.
K. H.
Choi
,
D. J.
Park
,
Y. W.
Rho
,
Y. T.
Kho
, and
T. H.
Lee
, 1998, “
A Study of the Internal Humidification of An Integrated PEMFC Stack
,”
J. Power Sources
0378-7753,
74
, pp.
146
150
.
15.
S.
Miachon
and
P.
Aldebert
, 1995, “
Internal Hydration H2/O2 100 cm2 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell
,”
J. Power Sources
0378-7753,
56
, pp.
31
36
.
16.
D.
Staschewski
and
Z. Q.
Mao
, 1999, “
Hydrogen-Air PEMFC Operation with Extraordinarily Low Gas Pressures and Internal Humidification-Conception and Experimental Prototype Stack
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
0360-3199,
24
, pp.
543
548
.
17.
F. N.
Buchi
and
S.
Srinivasan
, 1997, “
Operating Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells without External Humidification of the Reactant Gases-Fundamental Aspects
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
0013-4651,
144
, No.
8
, pp.
2767
2772
.
18.
R. E.
Sonntag
,
C.
Borgnakke
, and
G. J.
Van Wylen
, 1998,
Fundamentals of Thermodynamics
,
5th ed.
,
Wiley
, New York.
19.
J. T.
Pukrushpan
, “
Modeling and Control of PEM Fuel Cell Systems and Fuel Processors
,” Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 2003.
20.
F. P.
Incropera
and
D. P.
DeWitt
, 1996,
Introduction to Heat Transfer
,
3rd ed.
,
Wiley
, New York.
21.
D. F.
Young
,
A Brief Introduction to Fluid Mechanics
,
2nd ed.
,
Wiley
, New York, 2001.
22.
D.
Chen
and
H.
Peng
, “
Modeling and Simulation of a PEM Fuel Cell Humidification System
,”
Proceeding of 2004 American Control Conference
, Boston, Massachusetts.
You do not currently have access to this content.