In this study, a new hybrid-neural-network-based friction component model is developed for powertrain (PT) dynamic analysis and controller design. This new model, with significantly improved input-output scalability over conventional neural network configuration, has the capability to serve as a forward as well as an inverse system model. The structural information of the available physical and empirical correlations is utilized to construct a parallel-modulated neural network (PMNN) architecture consisting of small parallel sub-networks reflecting specific mechanisms of the friction component engagement process. The PMNN friction component model isolates the contribution of engagement pressure on engagement torque while identifying the nonlinear characteristics of the pressure-torque correlation. Furthermore, it provides a simple torque formula that is scalable with respect to engagement pressure. The network is successfully trained, tested and analyzed, first using analytical data at the component level and then using experimental data measured in a transmission system. The PMNN friction component model, together with a comprehensive powertrain model, is implemented to simulate the shifting process of an automatic transmission (AT) system under various operating conditions. Simulation results demonstrate that the PMNN model can be effectively applied as a part of powertrain system model to accurately predict transmission shift dynamics. A pressure-profiling scheme using a quadratic polynomial pressure-torque relationship of the PMNN model is developed for transmission shift controller design. The results illustrate that the proposed pressure profiling technique can be applied to a wide range of operating conditions. This study demonstrates the potential of the PMNN architecture as a new dynamic system-modeling concept: It not only outperforms the conventional network modeling techniques in accuracy and numerical efficiency, but also provides a new tool for transmission controller design to improve shift quality.

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