An adaptive output force control scheme for hydraulic cylinders is proposed by using direct output force measurement through loadcells. Due to the large and somewhat uncertain piston friction force, cylinder chamber pressure control with Coulomb-viscous friction prediction may not be sufficient enough to achieve a precise output force control. In the proposed approach, the output force error resulting from direct measurement is used not only for feedback control, but also to update the parameters of an appropriate friction model which includes the Coulomb-viscous friction force in sliding motion and the output force dependent friction force in presliding motion. The and stability is guaranteed for both the pressure force error and the output force error. Under bounded desired output force and its derivative, asymptotic stability of both the pressure force error and the output force error is also guaranteed. The experimental results demonstrate that a good pressure force control system does not necessarily guarantee a good output force control, and that adaptive friction compensation is superior to fixed-parameter friction compensation. The output force control transfer functions of a robot joint driven by two hydraulic cylinders in pull–pull configuration are limited by up to , tested in free motion and in rigid constraint. The excellent output force (joint torque) control performance implies the dynamic equivalency between a hydraulic cylinder and an electrically-driven motor within the prespecified bandwidth. This allows to emulate an electrically-driven robot by a hydraulic robot.
Adaptive Output Force Tracking Control of Hydraulic Cylinders With Applications to Robot Manipulators
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Zhu, W., and Piedboeuf, J. (June 8, 2004). "Adaptive Output Force Tracking Control of Hydraulic Cylinders With Applications to Robot Manipulators." ASME. J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. June 2005; 127(2): 206–217. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1898237
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