For low speed, low acceleration, and lightly loaded applications, kinematic models of Wheeled Mobile Robots (WMRs) provide reasonably accurate results. However, as WMRs are designed to perform more demanding, practical applications with high speeds and/or high loads, kinematic models are no longer valid representations. This paper includes experimental results for a heavy, differentially steered WMR for both loaded and unloaded conditions. These results are used to verify a recently developed dynamic model which includes a complex tire representation to accurately account for the tire/ground interaction. The dynamic model is then exercised to clearly show the inadequacy of kinematic models for high load and/or high speed conditions. Furthermore, through simulation, the failure of kinematic model based control for such applications is also shown.

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