An important problem in the field of force-reflecting systems and telerobotics is poor rendering of contact, particularly of contact with stiff surfaces. There are numerous possible sources of poor performance, including poor contact models, sampling errors, and delays due to computation or data transmission. In this paper we examine effects due to sample-and-hold, which is a fundamental property of both the discrete domain and also of the sensors and power amplifiers used in a force-reflecting system. We propose sample-and-hold be generalized to sample-estimate-hold. We show why ordinary sample-and-hold generates an active contact interface, and provide ways of improving the feeling of the interface. We have developed a suite of numerical methods for improving the performance of rendering of surfaces by force reflection. We have conducted both simulations and experiments to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed scheme. Our contributions are a new method of digitally processing force data, and a systematic method for coupling force-processing systems that run at different rates.

1.
Anderson
R. J.
and
Spong
M. W.
Bilateral Control of Teleoperators with a Time Delay
,”
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
, Vol.
34
(
5
)
494
501
,
1989
.
2.
Baumgarte
J.
Stabilization of Constraints and Integrals of Motion in Dynamical Systems
,”
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering
, Vol.
1
1
16
,
1972
.
3.
B. Bonneton and V. Hayward. “Implementation of a Virtual Wall,” Technical report, McGill University, 1994.
4.
J. E. Colgate and G. Schenkel. “Passivity of a Class of Sample-Data Systems: Application to Haptic Interfaces,” Proceedings of the American Control Conference, 1994.
5.
J. E. Colgate, P. E. Grafing, M. C. Stanley, and G. Schenkel. “Implementation of Stiff Virtual Walls in Force Reflectine Interfaces,” Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium, pp. 202–207, Washington, Sept. 1993.
6.
Ellis
R. E.
and
Ricker
S. L.
, “
Two Numerical Issues in Simulating Constrained Dynamics
,”
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics
, Vol.
24
(
1
)
19
27
,
1994
.
7.
Ellis
R. E.
,
Ismaeil
O. M.
, and
Lipsett
M.
Design and Evaluation of a High-Performance Prototype Planar Haptic Interface
,”
Advances in Robotics, Mechatronics, and Haptic Interfaces: ASME DSC
Vol.
49
, pp.
55
64
,
1993
.
8.
Sarkar
N.
,
Ellis
R. E.
, and
Moore
T.
Backlash Detection in Geared Mechanisms: Modeling, Simulation, and Experimentation
,”
Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing
, vol.
11
(
3
),
1997
, pp.
391
408
.
9.
Gillespie
R. B.
and
Cutkosky
M. R.
Stable User-Specific Haptic Rendering of the Virtual Wall
,”
ASME DSC
Vol.
58
, pp.
397
406
,
1996
.
10.
P. E. Grafing. “A Study of a Haptic Interface for a Virtual Environment,” Master’s thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, 1992.
11.
V. Hayward, J. Choksi, G. Lanvin, and C. Ramstein. “Design and Multi-Objective Optimization of a Linkage for a Haptic Device,” in Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Advances in Robot Kinematics, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 1994.
12.
R. M. Howe. “Techniques for Optimizing Computer Performance in Real-Time Flight Simulation,” Proceedings of the Conference on Aerospace Simulation II. pp. 1–12, 1986.
13.
Howe
R. M.
A New Family of Real-Time Predictor-Corrector Integration Algorithm
,”
Simulation
, Vol.
57
(
3
)
177
186
,
1991
.
14.
Hunt
K.
and
Crossley
F.
Coefficient of Restitution Interpreted as Damping in Vibroimpact
,”
ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics
, Vol.
97
440
445
, June
1975
.
15.
Hunter
I. W.
,
Doukoglou
T. D.
,
Lafontaine
S. R.
,
Charette
P. G.
,
Jones
L. A.
,
Sagar
M. A
,
Mallinson
G. D.
, and
Hunter
P. J.
, “
A Teleoperated Microsurgical Robot and Associated Virtual Environment for Eye Surgery
,”
Presence
, Vol.
2
(
4
)
265
289
,
1993
.
16.
Kazerooni
H.
, “
Human Induced Instability in Haptic Interfaces
,”
Advances in Robotics, Mechatronics, and Haptic Interfaces, ASME DSC
Vol.
49
, pp.
15
27
,
1993
.
17.
Lederman
S. J.
and
Klatzky
R. L.
Haptic Classification of Common Objects: Knowledge Driven Exploration
,”
Cognitive Psychology
, Vol.
22
421
459
,
1990
.
18.
Minsky
M.
,
Ouh-Young
M.
, and
Steele
F. P. J. B. O.
, “
Feeling and Seeing: Issues in Force Display
,”
Computer Graphics
, Vol.
24
(
2
)
235
243
,
1990
.
19.
M. Ouh-Young, Force Display in Molecular Docking, PhD thesis. Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina, Chapell Hill, NC, 1990.
20.
L. B. Rosenberg and B. D. Adelstein, “Perceptual Decomposition of Virtual Haptic Surfaces,” Proceedings of the Symposium on Research Frontiers in Virtual Reality, pp. 23–26, San Jose, CA, Oct. 1993.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.