This technical brief addresses issues of mechanical emulation of stiff walls and stick-slip friction with a 6-DOF magnetically levitated joystick. In the case of stiff wall emulation, it is shown that the PD control implementation commonly used severely limits achievable wall damping and stiffness. It is also shown that the perceived surface stiffness can be increased without loss of stability by applying a braking force pulse when crossing into the wall. For stick-slip friction, Karnopp’s model was implemented using a PD controller within the stick friction threshold. Even though the PD controller allows some motion during the stick phase, the haptic feedback provided is remarkably similar to stick-slip friction.

1.
Adelstein
B. D.
, and
Rosen
M. J.
,
1992
, “
Design and Implementation of a Force Reflecting Manipulandum for Manual Control Research
,”
Advances in Robotics
, Vol.
ASME-DSC 42
, pp.
1
12
.
2.
Colgate, J. E., Grafing, P. E., Stanley, M. C., and Schenkel, G., 1993, “Implementation of Stiff Virtual Walls in Force-Reflecting Interfaces,” in IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium, pp. 202–208.
3.
Ellis, R. E., Ismaeil, O. M., and Lipsett, M. G., 1993, “Design and Evaluation of a High-Performance Prototype Force-Feedback Motion Controller,” H. Kazerooni, J. E. Colgate, and B. D. Adelstein, ed., Advances in Robotics, Mechatronics and Haptic Interfaces, 1993, ASME, New York, pp. 55–64.
4.
Gotow, J. K., Friedman, M. B., and Nagurka, M. L., 1989, “Controlled Impedance Test Apparatus for Studying Human Interpretation of Kinesthetic Feedback,” in Proceedings of the 1989 American Control Conference, pp. 332–337, Pittsburgh, PA., June 21–23.
5.
Karnopp
D.
,
1985
, “
Computer Simulation of Stick-Slip Friction in Mechanical Dynamic Systems
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL
, Vol.
107
, pp.
100
103
.
6.
Kelley, A. J., and Salcudean, S. E., 1993, “Magic Mouse: Tactile and Kinesthetic Feedback in the Human-Computer Interface Using an Electromagnetically Actuated Input/Output Device.” Submitted for publication in the IEEE Trans. on Robotics and Automation, Jan. 1993., conditionally accepted for publication.
7.
Hogan, N., and Fasse, E. D., 1993, “Quantitative assessment of human perception of virtual objects.” Proceedings of the 1993 ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Vol. ASME-DSC 49, pp. 89–97, New Orleans, LA.
8.
Hollis
R. L.
,
Salcudean
S. E.
, and
Allan
P. A.
,
1991
, “
A Six Degree-of-Freedom Magnetically Levitated Variable Compliance Fine Motion Wrist: Design, Modelling and Control
,”
IEEE Trans. Robotics Automat.
, Vol.
7
, pp.
320
332
.
9.
Hollis, R. L., and Salcudean, S. E., 1992, “Input/Output System for Computer-User Interfaces Using Magnetic Levitation,” U.S. patent number 5,146,566.
10.
Howe, R. D., 1992, “A Force-Reflecting Teleoperated Hand System for the Study of Tactile Sensing in Precision Manipulation,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Nice, France, pp. 1321–1326.
11.
Millman, P., Stanley, M., Grafing, P., and Colgate, J. E., 1992, “A System for the Implementation and Kinesthetic Display of Virtual Environments,” Proceedings of SPIE-the International Society for Optical Engineering: Telemanipulator Technology, Boston, MA, pp. 49–56.
12.
Minsky, M., Ouh-Young, M., Steele, O., Brooks, F. P. Jr., and Behensky, M., 1990, “Feeling and Seeing: Issues in Force Display,” Proceedings 1990 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, pp. 235–243.
13.
Mussa-Ivaldi, F. A., Kay, B. A., Hogan, N., and Fasse, E., 1989, “Perceiving the Properties of Objects Using Arm Movements: Workspace-Dependent Effects,” IEEE Engineering In Medicine and Biology Society, 11th Annual International Conference, pp. 1522–1523, June.
14.
Oh, S.-R., Hollis, R. L., and Salcudean, S. E., 1993, “Precision Assembly with a Magnetically Levitated Wrist,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Robotics Automat., Atlanta, GA, pp. 127–134.
15.
Ouh-Young, M., Pique, M., Hughes, J., Srinivasan, N., and Brooks, F. P. Jr., 1988, “Using A Manipulator for Force Display In Molecular Docking,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. Robotics Automat., Philadelphia, PA, pp. 1824–1829.
16.
Salcudean, S. E., Wong, N. M., and Hollis, R. L., 1992, “A Force-Reflecting Teleoperation System with Magnetically Levitated Master and Wrist,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Robotics Automat., Nice, France, pp. 1420–1426.
17.
Vlaar, T. D., 1994, “Mechanism Emulation with a Magnetically Levitated Input/Output Device,” Master’s thesis. University of British Columbia.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.