A dynamic model of an automotive powertrain system is developed by the use of eight states and two time-delays in the continuous-time domain, with careful attention given to the dynamics and kinematics of a four-stroke spark-ignition engine, an automatic transmission, and rubber tires. The model is relatively simple, yet it predicts the important dynamics (including those during a shift) quite well when compared to experimental data. The model is well suited for developing powertrain controllers and can also be used for studying the dynamic behavior of a powertrain system. A great deal of effort was directed toward preserving the generic nature of modeling so that the developed techniques can be easily adapted to different vehicles with a minimum amount of bench tests for obtaining parameters.

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