This three-part paper presents an approach to the control of dynamic interaction between a manipulator and its environment. Part I presented the theoretical reasoning behind impedance control. In Part II the implementation of impedance control is considered. A feedback control algorithm for imposing a desired cartesian impedance on the end-point of a nonlinear manipulator is presented. This algorithm completely eliminates the need to solve the “inverse kinematics problem” in robot motion control. The modulation of end-point impedance without using feedback control is also considered, and it is shown that apparently “redundant” actuators and degrees of freedom such as exist in the primate musculoskeletal system may be used to modulate end-point impedance and may play an essential functional role in the control of dynamic interaction.

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