Manipulation fundamentally requires the manipulator to be mechanically coupled to the object being manipulated; the manipulator may not be treated as an isolated system. This three-part paper presents an approach to the control of dynamic interaction between a manipulator and its environment. In Part I this approach is developed by considering the mechanics of interaction between physical systems. Control of position or force alone is inadequate; control of dynamic behavior is also required. It is shown that as manipulation is a fundamentally nonlinear problem, the distinction between impedance and admittance is essential, and given the environment contains inertial objects, the manipulator must be an impedance. A generalization of a Norton equivalent network is defined for a broad class of nonlinear manipulators which separates the control of motion from the control of impedance while preserving the superposition properties of the Norton network. It is shown that components of the manipulator impedance may be combined by superposition even when they are nonlinear.

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