The achievement of quality dynamic performance in manipulator systems is difficult using conventional control methods because of both the inherent geometric nonlinearities of these systems and the dependence of the system dynamics on the characteristics of manipulated objects. A model-referenced adaptive control law is developed for maintaining uniformly good performance over a wide range of motions and payloads. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated in several simulations and the system stability as a function of input is investigated. Also developed is a “learning signal” approach designed to minimize initial transients arising from abrupt changes in the inertial payload.

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