Detection of potential failures and human error and their propagation over time at an early design stage will help prevent system failures and adverse accidents. Hence, there is a need for a failure analysis technique that will assess potential functional/component failures, human errors, and how they propagate to affect the system overall. Prior work has introduced functional failure identification and propagation (FFIP), which considers both human error and mechanical failures and their propagation at a system level at early design stages. However, it fails to consider the specific human actions (expected or unexpected) that contributed toward the human error. In this paper, we propose a method to expand FFIP to include human action/error propagation during failure analysis so a designer can address the human errors using human factors engineering principals at early design stages. The capabilities of the proposed method is presented via a hold-up tank example, and the results are coupled with digital human modeling to demonstrate how designers can use these tools to make better design decisions before any design commitments are made.

References

References
1.
French Civil Aviation Safety Investigation Authority
,
2012
, “
Final Report on the Accident on 1st June 2009 to the Airbus A330-203 Registered F-GZCP Operated by Air France Flight AF 447 Rio de Janeiro–Paris
,” Bureau d'Enquêtes et d'Analyses pour la sécurité de l'aviation civile, BEA, Paris, Investigation
Report
.https://www.bea.aero/docspa/2009/f-cp090601.en/pdf/f-cp090601.en.pdf
2.
Wise
,
J.
,
Rio
,
A.
, and
Fedouach
,
M.
,
2011
, “
What Really Happened Aboard Air France 447
,”
Pop. Mech.
,
6
, pp. 35–36.https://www.popularmechanics.com/flight/a3115/what-really-happened-aboard-air-france-447-6611877/
3.
Salmon
,
P. M.
,
Walker
,
G. H.
, and
Stanton
,
N. A.
,
2016
, “
Pilot Error Versus Sociotechnical Systems Failure: A Distributed Situation Awareness Analysis of Air France 447
,”
Theor. Issues Ergon. Sci.
,
17
(
1
), pp.
64
79
.
4.
McIntire
,
M. G.
,
Hoyle
,
C.
,
Tumer
,
I. Y.
, and
Jensen
,
D. C.
,
2016
, “
Safety-Informed Design: Using Subgraph Analysis to Elicit Hazardous Emergent Failure Behavior in Complex Systems
,”
AI Edam
,
30
(
4
), pp.
466
473
.
5.
Demirel
,
H. O.
,
2015
, “
Modular Human-in-the-Loop Design Framework Based on Human Factors
,”
Ph.D. thesis
, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/dissertations/AAI10096838/
6.
Reason
,
J.
,
1990
, “
The Contribution of Latent Human Failures to the Breakdown of Complex Systems
,”
Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B
,
327
(
1241
), pp.
475
484
.
7.
Wiegmann
,
D. A.
, and
Shappell
,
S. A.
,
2001
, “
Human Error Analysis of Commercial Aviation Accidents: Application of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS)
,”
Aviat. Space Environ. Med.
,
72
(
11
), pp.
1006
1016
.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11718505
8.
Högberg
,
L.
,
2013
, “
Root Causes and Impacts of Severe Accidents at Large Nuclear Power Plants
,”
Ambio
,
42
(
3
), pp.
267
284
.
9.
Kohn
,
L. T.
,
Corrigan
,
J. M.
, and
Donaldson
,
M. S.
, 2000, “
Errors in Health Care: A Leading Cause of Death And Injury
,”
To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System
, L. T. Kohn, J. M. Corrigan and M.S. Donaldson, eds., National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
10.
Kurtoglu
,
T.
, and
Tumer
,
I. Y.
,
2008
, “
A Graph-Based Fault Identification and Propagation Framework for Functional Design of Complex Systems
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
130
(
5
), p.
051401
.
11.
Irshad
,
L.
,
Ahmed
,
S.
,
Demirel
,
H. O.
, and
Tumer
,
I. Y.
,
2018
, “
Identification of Human Errors During Early Design Stage Functional Failure Analysis
,”
ASME
Paper No. DETC2018-85979
.
12.
Mahadevan
,
S.
,
Smith
,
N. L.
, and
Zang
,
T. A.
,
2003
, “
System Risk Assessment and Allocation in Conceptual Design
,” NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, Report No.
NASA/CR-2003-212162
.https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20030053149.pdf
13.
Kurtoglu
,
T.
, and
Tumer
,
I. Y.
,
2007
, “
FFIP: A Framework for Early Assessment of Functional Failures in Complex Systems
,” ICED, Cite Des Sciences et de L'industrie, Paris, France.
14.
Kurtoglu
,
T.
,
Tumer
,
I. Y.
, and
Jensen
,
D. C.
,
2010
, “
A Functional Failure Reasoning Methodology for Evaluation of Conceptual System Architectures
,”
Res. Eng. Des.
,
21
(
4
), pp.
209
234
.
15.
Jensen
,
D. C.
,
2012
, “
Enabling Safety-Informed Design Decision Making Through Simulation, Reasoning and Analysis
,” Ph.D. thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.
16.
Sierla
,
S.
,
Tumer
,
I.
,
Papakonstantinou
,
N.
,
Koskinen
,
K.
, and
Jensen
,
D.
,
2012
, “
Early Integration of Safety to the Mechatronic System Design Process by the Functional Failure Identification and Propagation Framework
,”
Mechatronics
,
22
(
2
), pp.
137
151
.
17.
Lyons
,
M.
,
Adams
,
S.
,
Woloshynowych
,
M.
, and
Vincent
,
C.
,
2004
, “
Human Reliability Analysis in Healthcare: A Review of Techniques
,”
Int. J. Risk Saf. Med.
,
16
(
4
), pp.
223
237
.https://content.iospress.com/articles/international-journal-of-risk-and-safety-in-medicine/jrs321
18.
Kirwan
,
B.
,
1994
,
A Guide to Practical Human Reliability Assessment
,
CRC Press
, Boca Raton, FL.
19.
Deeter
,
J.
, and
Rantanen
,
E.
,
2012
, “
Human Reliability Analysis in Healthcare
,”
Symposium on Human Factors and Ergonomics in Health Care
, Baltimore, MD, Mar. 12–14, pp.
45
51
.
20.
Kirwan
,
B.
,
1998
, “
Human Error Identification Techniques for Risk Assessment of High Risk Systems—Part 1: Review and Evaluation of Techniques
,”
Appl. Ergon.
,
29
(
3
), pp.
157
177
.
21.
Stanton
,
N. A.
, and
Stevenage
,
S. V.
,
1998
, “
Learning to Predict Human Error: Issues of Acceptability, Reliability and Validity
,”
Ergonomics
,
41
(
11
), pp.
1737
1756
.
22.
Embrey
,
D.
,
1986
, “
SHERPA: A Systematic Human Error Reduction and Prediction Approach
,”
International Topical Meeting on Advances in Human Factors in Nuclear Power Systems
, Knoxville, TN, Apr. 21–24, pp. 184–193.
23.
Harris
,
D.
,
Stanton
,
N. A.
,
Marshall
,
A.
,
Young
,
M. S.
,
Demagalski
,
J.
, and
Salmon
,
P.
,
2005
, “
Using SHERPA to Predict Design-Induced Error on the Flight Deck
,”
Aerosp. Sci. Technol.
,
9
(
6
), pp.
525
532
.
24.
Hughes
,
C. M.
,
Baber
,
C.
,
Bienkiewicz
,
M.
,
Worthington
,
A.
,
Hazell
,
A.
, and
Hermsdörfer
,
J.
,
2015
, “
The Application of SHERPA (Systematic Human Error Reduction and Prediction Approach) in the Development of Compensatory Cognitive Rehabilitation Strategies for Stroke Patients With Left and Right Brain Damage
,”
Ergonomics
,
58
(
1
), pp.
75
95
.
25.
Williams
,
J.
,
1988
, “
A Data-Based Method for Assessing and Reducing Human Error to Improve Operational Performance
,”
IEEE
Fourth Conference on Human Factors and Power Plants,
Monterey, CA, June 5–9, pp.
436
450
.
26.
Swain
,
A.
,
1964
, “
THERP Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction
,”
Symposium on Quantification of Human Performance
, Albuquerque, NM.
27.
Gertman
,
D.
,
Blackman
,
H.
,
Marble
,
J.
,
Byers
,
J.
,
Smith
,
C.
, and
O'™Reilly, P.
,
2005
, “
The Spar-h Human Reliability Analysis Method
,” U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, Report No.
NUREG/CR-6883
.https://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/nuregs/contract/cr6883/cr6883.pdf
28.
Cooper
,
S. E.
,
Ramey-Smith
,
A.
,
Wreathall
,
J.
,
Parry
,
G. W.
,
Bley
,
D. C.
,
Luckas
,
J. W.
,
Taylor
,
H.
, and
Barriere
,
T. M.
,
1996
, “
A Technique for Human Error Analysis (Atheana)
,” Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC; Division of Systems Technology; Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY; Science Applications International Corporation, Reston, VA; NUS Corporation, Gaithersburg, MD, Report No. NUREG/CR-6350.
29.
Hollnagel
,
E.
,
1998
,
Cream-Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method
,
Elsevier Science
,
Oxford
.
30.
Le Bot
,
P.
,
Cara
,
F.
, and
Bieder
,
C.
,
1999
, “
MERMOS, a Second Generation HRA Method: What It Does and Doesn't Do
,”
International Topical Meeting on Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA'99)
, Washington, DC, Aug. 22–26, pp.
852
880
.
31.
Pocock
,
S.
,
Harrison
,
M. D.
,
Wright
,
P. C.
, and
Johnson
,
P.
,
2001
, “
Thea: A Technique for Human Error Assessment Early in Design
,” Vol.
1
, Interact, IOC press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp.
247
254
.
32.
US Department of Defense,
1980
,
Mil-std-1629a.
Department of Defense
,
Washington, DC
, Report No. US Department of Defense, Washington, DC.
33.
Vesely
,
W. E.
,
Goldberg
,
F. F.
,
Roberts
,
N. H.
, and
Haasl
,
D. F.
,
1981
,
Fault Tree Handbook.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC
, Report No. NUREG-0492.
34.
Stone
,
R. B.
,
Tumer
,
I. Y.
, and
Van Wie
,
M.
,
2005
, “
The Function-Failure Design Method
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
127
(
3
), pp.
397
407
.
35.
Lough
,
K. G.
,
Stone
,
R.
, and
Tumer
,
I. Y.
,
2009
, “
The Risk in Early Design Method
,”
J. Eng. Des.
,
20
(
2
), pp.
155
173
.
36.
Huang
,
Z.
, and
Jin
,
Y.
,
2008
, “
Conceptual Stress and Conceptual Strength for Functional Design-for-Reliability
,”
ASME
Paper No. DETC2008-49347.
37.
Ericson
,
C. A.
,
2015
, “
Event Tree Analysis
,”
Hazard Analysis Techniques for System Safety
, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, pp.
223
234
.
38.
Krus
,
D.
, and
Lough
,
K. G.
,
2007
, “
Applying Function-Based Failure Propagation in Conceptual Design
,”
ASME
Paper No. DETC2007-35475.
39.
Short
,
A. R.
,
2016
, “
Design of Autonomous Systems for Survivability Through Conceptual Object-Based Risk Analysis
,”
Masters Thesis
, Golden, CO.https://mountainscholar.org/handle/11124/170260
40.
Hirtz
,
J.
,
Stone
,
R. B.
,
McAdams
,
D. A.
,
Szykman
,
S.
, and
Wood
,
K. L.
,
2002
, “
A Functional Basis for Engineering Design: Reconciling and Evolving Previous Efforts
,”
Res. Eng. Des.
,
13
(
2
), pp.
65
82
.
41.
Sangelkar
,
S.
, and
McAdams
,
D. A.
,
2011
, “
Formalizing User Activity-Product Function Association Based Design Rules for Universal Products
,”
ASME
Paper No. DETC2011-47926.
42.
Sangelkar
,
S.
, and
Mcadams
,
D. A.
,
2012
, “
Creating Actionfunction Diagrams for User Centric Design
,” 119th ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, American Society for Engineering Education, San Antonio, TX, June 10–13.
43.
Demirel
,
H. O.
, and
Duffy
,
V. G.
,
2007
, “
Applications of Digital Human Modeling in Industry
,”
International Conference on Digital Human Modeling
, Springer, Beijing, China, July 22–27, pp.
824
832
.
44.
Aldemir
,
T.
,
1987
, “
Computer-Assisted Markov Failure Modeling of Process Control Systems
,”
IEEE Trans. Reliab.
,
36
(
1
), pp.
133
144
.
45.
Siu
,
N.
,
1994
, “
Risk Assessment for Dynamic Systems: An Overview
,”
Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf.
,
43
(
1
), pp.
43
73
.
46.
Cojazzi
,
G.
,
1996
, “
The Dylam Approach for the Dynamic Reliability Analysis of Systems
,”
Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf.
,
52
(
3
), pp.
279
296
.
47.
Hofer
,
E.
,
Kloos
,
M.
,
Krzykacz-Hausmann
,
B.
,
Peschke
,
J.
, and
Woltereck
,
M.
,
2002
, “
An Approximate Epistemic Uncertainty Analysis Approach in the Presence of Epistemic and Aleatory Uncertainties
,”
Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf.
,
77
(
3
), pp.
229
238
.
48.
Billings
,
C. E.
,
1991
, “
Human-Centered Aircraft Automation: A Concept and Guidelines
,” NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, Report No: NASA TM-103885.
49.
Stanton
,
N. A.
,
2014
, “
Representing Distributed Cognition in Complex Systems: How a Submarine Returns to Periscope Depth
,”
Ergonomics
,
57
(
3
), pp.
403
418
.
You do not currently have access to this content.