In this paper a new hardware accelerated method is presented to evaluate the machinability of free-form surfaces. This method works on tessellated models that are commonly used by computer aided design (CAD) systems to render three-dimensional shaded images of solid models. Modern graphics processing units (GPUs) can be programed in hardware to accelerate specialized rendering techniques. In this research, we have developed new algorithms that utilize the programmability of GPUs to evaluate the machinability of free-form surfaces. The method runs in real-time on fairly inexpensive hardware (<$600), and performs well regardless of the surface type. The complexity of the method is dictated by the size of the projected view of the model. The proposed method can be used as a plug-in in a CAD system to evaluate the manufacturability of a part at early design stages. The efficiency and the speed of the proposed method are demonstrated on some complex objects.

1.
Ullman
,
D. G.
, 1997,
The Mechanical Design Process
,
2nd ed.
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
2.
Bishop
,
R.
, 1985,
Huge Gaps in Designer’s Knowledge Revealed
,
Eureka
,
UK
.
3.
Brown
,
D. R.
,
Cutkosky
,
M. R.
, and
Tenenbaum
,
J. M.
, 1991, “
Next-Cut: A Second Generation Framework for Concurrent Engineering
,”
Proceedings of the MIT-JSME Workshop on Computer-Aided Cooperative Product Development
, Cambridge, MA, pp.
8
25
.
4.
Smith
,
C. S.
, and
Wright
,
P. K.
, 1996, “
CyberCut: A World Wide Web Based Design-to-Fabrication Tool
,”
J. Manuf. Syst.
0278-6125,
15
(
6
), pp.
432
442
.
5.
Rosen
,
D. W.
,
Dixon
,
J. R.
,
Poli
,
C.
, and
Dong
,
X.
, 1992, “
Features and Algorithms for Tooling Cost Evaluation in Injection Molding and Die Casting
,”
Proceedings of ASME International Computers in Engineering Conference
, pp.
1
8
.
6.
Gaines
,
D. M.
,
Castano
,
F.
, and
Hayes
,
C.
, 1999, “
MEDIATOR: Reconfigurable Feature Recognition for a Maintainable, Extendible CAD/CAPP Integration
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
0161-8458,
121
(
1
), pp.
145
158
.
7.
Vandenbrande
,
J. H.
, and
Requicha
,
A. A. G.
, 1993, “
Spatial Reasoning for the Automatic Recognition of Machinable Features in Solid Models
,”
IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.
0162-8828,
15
, pp.
1269
1285
.
8.
Regli
,
W. C.
,
Gupta
,
S. K.
, and
Nau
,
D. S.
, 1995, “
Extracting Alternative Machining Features: An Algorithmic Approach
,”
Res. Eng. Des.
0934-9839,
7
(
3
), pp.
173
192
.
9.
Sundararajan
,
V.
, and
Wright
,
P. K.
, 2000, “
Identification of Multiple Feature Representations by Volume Decomposition for 2.5D Components
,”
ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
1087-1357,
122
(
1
), pp.
280
290
.
10.
Chen
,
L. L.
, and
Woo
,
T. C.
, 1992, “
Computational Geometry on the Sphere With Applications to Automated Machining
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
0161-8458,
114
, pp.
288
295
.
11.
Yang
,
W.
,
Ding
,
H.
, and
Xiong
,
Y.
, 1999, “
Manufacturability Analysis for a Sculpted Surface Using Visibility Cone Computation
,”
Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol.
0268-3768,
15
(
5
), pp.
317
331
.
12.
Choi
,
B. K.
, and
Ko
,
K.
, 2003, “
C-Space Based CAPP Algorithm for Free-Form Die-Cavity Machining
,”
Comput.-Aided Des.
0010-4485,
35
(
2
), pp.
179
189
.
13.
Klass
,
R.
, and
Kuhn
,
B.
, 1992, “
Fillet and Surface Intersections Defined by Rolling Balls
,”
Comput. Aided Geom. Des.
0167-8396,
9
, pp.
185
193
.
14.
Lee
,
Y. S.
,
Ma
,
Y.
, and
Jegadesh
,
G.
, 2000, “
Rolling-Ball Method and Contour Marching Approach to Identify Critical Regions for Complex Surface Machining
,”
Comput. Ind.
,
41
, pp.
163
180
. 0166-3615
15.
Saito
,
T.
, and
Takahashi
,
T.
, 1991, “
NC Machining With G-Buffer Method
,”
ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics
,
25
, pp.
207
217
.
16.
Konig
,
A. H.
, and
Groller
,
E.
, 1998, “
Real Time Simulation and Visualization of NC Milling Processes for Inhomogeneous Materials on Low-End Graphics Hardware
,”
Computer Graphics International Proceedings
, pp.
338
349
.
17.
Balasubramaniam
,
M.
,
Sarma
,
S. E.
, and
Marciniak
,
K.
, 2003, “
Collision-Free Finishing Toolpaths From Visibility Data
,”
Comput.-Aided Des.
0010-4485,
35
(
4
), pp.
359
374
.
18.
Inui
,
M.
, 2003, “
Fast Inverse Offset Computation Using Polygon Rendering Hardware
,”
Comput.-Aided Des.
0010-4485,
35
(
2
), pp.
191
201
.
19.
Inui
,
M.
, and
Miyashita
,
T.
, 2003, “
Hollow Shape Extraction: Geometric Method for Assisting Process Planning of Mold Machining
,”
Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE International Symposium on Assembly and Task Planning
, Besancon, France.
20.
Gray
,
P.
,
Bedi
,
S.
, and
Ismail
,
F.
, 2003, “
Rolling Ball Method for 5-Axis Surface Machining
,”
Comput.-Aided Des.
0010-4485,
35
(
4
), pp.
347
357
.
21.
Gray
,
P.
,
Ismail
,
F.
, and
Bedi
,
S.
, 2004, “
Graphics-Assisted Rolling Ball Method for 5-Axis Surface Machining
,”
Comput.-Aided Des.
0010-4485,
36
(
7
), pp.
653
663
.
22.
Spitz
,
S. N.
, and
Requicha
,
A. G.
, 2000, “
Accessibility Analysis Using Computer Graphics Hardware
,”
IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph.
1077-2626,
6
(
3
), pp.
208
219
.
23.
Morimoto
,
K.
, and
Inui
,
M.
, 2007, “
A GPU-Based Algorithm for Determining the Optimal Cutting Direction in Deep Mold Machining
,”
Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Symposium on Assembly and Manufacturing
, Ann Arbor, MI.
24.
Khardekar
,
R.
,
Burton
,
G.
, and
McMains
,
S.
, 2006, “
Finding Feasible Mold Parting Directions Using Graphics Hardware
,”
Comput.-Aided Des.
0010-4485,
38
, pp.
327
341
.
25.
Priyadarshi
,
A.
, and
Gupta
,
S. K.
, 2006, “
Finding Mold-Piece Regions Using Computer Graphics Hardware
,”
Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.
0302-9743,
4077
, pp.
655
662
.
26.
Rossignac
,
J.
, 1998, “
Blist: A Boolean List Formulation of CSG Trees
,” Technical Report No. GIT-GVU-99-04.
27.
Kapasi
,
U. J.
,
Rixner
,
S.
,
Dally
,
W. J.
,
Khailany
,
B.
,
Ahn
,
J. H.
,
Matson
,
P.
, and
Owens
,
J.
, 2003, “
Programmable Stream Processors
,”
Computer
0018-9162,
36
, pp.
54
62
.
28.
Harris
,
M.
, 2006,
Mapping Computational Concepts to GPUs, GPU Gems 2
,
Addison-Wesley
,
Reading, MA
, pp.
493
508
.
29.
Owens
,
J.
, 2002, “
Computer Graphics on a Stream Architecture
,” Ph.D. thesis, Computer Science Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
30.
Fernando
,
R.
, and
Kilgard
,
M.
, 2003,
Cg: The Cg Tutorial
,
Addison-Wesley
,
Reading, MA
.
31.
Microsoft
, “
The DirectX Documentation
,” http://www.msdn.com/DirectXhttp://www.msdn.com/DirectX.
32.
Shreiner
,
D.
,
Woo
,
M.
,
Neider
,
J.
, and
Davis
,
T.
, 2005,
OpenGL: Programming Guide
,
Addison-Wesley
,
Reading, MA
.
33.
Green
,
S.
, 2005, “
The OpenGL Framebuffer Object Extension
,”
Proceedings of the Game Developers Conference
, San Francisco, CA.
You do not currently have access to this content.