Virtual reality (VR) technology holds promise as a virtual prototyping (VP) tool for mechanical assembly; however, several developmental challenges still need to be addressed before VP applications can successfully be integrated into the product realization process. This paper describes the development of System for Haptic Assembly and Realistic Prototyping (SHARP), a portable virtual assembly system. SHARP uses physics-based modeling for simulating realistic part-to-part and hand-to-part interactions in virtual environments. A dual-handed haptic interface for a realistic part interaction using the PHANToM® haptic devices is presented. The capability of creating subassemblies enhances the application’s ability to handle a wide variety of assembly scenarios at the part level as well as at the subassembly level. Swept volumes are implemented for addressing maintainability issues, and a network module is added for communicating with different VR systems at dispersed geographic locations. Support for various types of VR systems allows an easy integration of SHARP into the product realization process, resulting in faster product development, faster identification of assembly and design issues, and a more efficient and less costly product design process.

1.
Banerjee
,
P.
, 2002, “
Data Interface Software for Windows PC-Compatible Virtual Reality Scene Graphs
,”
ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng.
1530-9827,
2
(
1
), pp.
72
74
.
2.
Erleben
,
K.
,
Sporring
,
J.
,
Henriksen
,
K.
, and
Dohlmann
,
H.
, 2005,
Physics-Based Animation
,
1st ed.
,
Charles River Media
,
Hingham, MA
, p.
817
.
3.
McNeely
,
W. A.
,
Puterbaugh
,
K. D.
, and
Troy
,
J. J.
, 1999, “
Six Degree-of-Freedom Haptic Rendering Using Voxel Sampling
,”
Proceedings of the SIGGRAPH 99 Conference, Annual Conference Series
, Los Angeles, CA.
4.
Mirtich
,
B. V.
, 1996, “
Impulse-Based Dynamic Simulation of Rigid Body Systems
,”
Computer Science
,
University of California
,
Berkeley
, p.
246
.
5.
Baraff
,
D.
, 1995, “
Interactive Simulation of Solid Rigid Bodies
,”
IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl.
0272-1716,
15
(
3
), pp.
63
75
.
6.
Witkin
,
A.
,
Gleicher
,
M.
, and
Welch
,
W.
, 1990, “
Interactive Dynamics
,”
Comput. Graph.
0097-8930,
24
(
2
), pp.
11
22
.
7.
Fröhlich
,
B.
,
Tramberend
,
H.
,
Beers
,
A.
,
Agarawala
,
M.
, and
Baraff
,
D.
, 2000, “
Physically-Based Modeling on the Responsive Workbench
,”
Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality Conference
.
8.
McDermott
,
S. D.
, and
Bras
,
B.
, 1999,“
Development of a Haptically Enabled Dis/Re-Assembly Simulation Environment
,” ASME Paper No. DETC1999/CIE-9035.
9.
Seth
,
A.
,
Su
,
H. J.
, and
Vance
,
J. M.
, 2006, “
SHARP: A System for Haptic Assembly and Realistic Prototyping
,” ASME Paper No. DETC2006/CIE-99476.
10.
Kim
,
C. E.
, and
Vance
,
J. M.
, 2004, “
Collision Detection and Part Interaction Modeling to Facilitate Immersive Virtual Assembly Methods
,”
ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng.
1530-9827,
4
(
2
), pp.
83
90
.
11.
Kuehne
,
R.
, and
Oliver
,
J.
, 1995, “
A Virtual Environment for Interactive Assembly Planning and Evaluation
,”
Proceedings of the ASME Design Automation Conference
, Boston, MA.
12.
Jayaram
,
S.
,
Jayaram
,
U.
,
Wang
,
Y.
,
Tirumali
,
H.
,
Lyons
,
K.
, and
Hart
,
P.
, 1999, “
VADE: A Virtual Assembly Design Environment
,”
IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl.
0272-1716,
19
(
6
), pp.
44
50
.
13.
Kim
,
C. E.
, and
Vance
,
J. M.
, 2004, “
Development of a Networked Haptic Environment in VR to Facilitate Collaborative Design Using Voxmap Pointshell (VPS) Software
,” ASME Paper No. DETC2004/CIE-57648.
14.
Marcelino
,
L.
,
Murray
,
N.
, and
Fernando
,
T.
, 2003, “
A Constraint Manager to Support Virtual Maintainability
,”
Comput. Graphics
0097-8493,
27
(
1
), pp.
19
26
.
15.
Coutee
,
A. S.
,
McDermott
,
S. D.
, and
Bras
,
B.
, 2001, “
A Haptic Assembly and Disassembly Simulation Environment and Associated Computational Load Optimization Techniques
,”
ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng.
1530-9827,
1
(
2
), pp.
113
122
.
16.
Wan
,
H.
,
Gao
,
S.
,
Peng
,
Q.
,
Dai
,
G.
, and
Zhang
,
F.
, 2004, “
MIVAS: A Multi-Modal Immersive Virtual Assembly System
,” ASME Paper No. DETC 2004/CIE-57660.
17.
Gupta
,
R.
,
Whitney
,
D.
, and
Zeltzer
,
D.
, 1997, “
Prototyping and Design for Assembly Analysis Using Multimodal Virtual Environments
,”
Comput.-Aided Des.
0010-4485,
29
(
8
), pp.
585
597
, special issue on VR in CAD.
18.
Wang
,
Y.
,
Jayaram
,
S.
,
Jayaram
,
U.
, and
Lyons
,
K.
, 2001, “
Physically Based Modeling in Virtual Assembly
,” ASME Paper No. DETC2001/CIE-21259.
19.
Bullinger
,
H. J.
,
Richer
,
M.
, and
Seidel
,
K. A.
, 2000, “
Virtual Assembly Planning
,”
Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing
,
10
(
3
), pp.
331
341
. 1090-8471
20.
Fernando
,
T.
,
Marcelino
,
L.
,
Wimalaratne
,
P.
, and
Tan
,
K.
, 2000, “
Interactive Assembly Modeling Within a CAVE Environment
,”
Proceedings of the Eurographics–Portuguese Chapter
, pp.
43
49
.
21.
Brough
,
J. E.
,
Schwartz
,
M.
,
Gupta
,
S. K.
,
Anand
,
D. K.
,
Kavetsky
,
R.
, and
Petterson
,
R.
, 2007, “
Towards the Development of a Virtual Environment-Based Training System for Mechanical Assembly Operations
,”
Virtual Reality
,
11
(
4
), pp.
189
206
.
22.
Garbaya
,
S.
, and
Zaldivar-Colado
,
U.
, 2007, “
The Effect of Contact Force Sensations on User Performance in Virtual Assembly Tasks
,”
Virtual Reality
,
11
(
4
), pp.
287
299
.
23.
Seth
,
A.
,
Su
,
H. J.
, and
Vance
,
J. M.
, 2005, “
A Desktop Networked Haptic VR Interface for Mechanical Assembly
,” ASME Paper No. IMECE2005-81873.
24.
Just
,
C.
,
Bierbaum
,
A.
,
Baker
,
A.
, and
Cruz-Neira
,
C.
, 1998, “
VR Juggler: A Framework for Virtual Reality Development
,”
Proceedings of the Second Immersive Projection Technology Workshop (IPT98)
, Ames, IA. CD-ROM.
25.
Fifth Dimension Technologies
, http://5dt.com/http://5dt.com/
27.
Burdea
,
G. C.
, 1999, “
Haptic Feedback for Virtual Reality
,”
Proceedings of the Virtual Reality and Prototyping Workshop
, Laval, France.
28.
Howard
,
B. M.
, and
Vance
,
J. M.
, 2007, “
Desktop Haptic Virtual Assembly Using Physically Based Modelling
,”
Virtual Reality
,
11
(
4
), pp.
207
215
.
29.
Colgate
,
J. E.
,
Stanley
,
M. C.
, and
Brown
,
J. M.
, 1995, “
Issues in the Haptic Display of Tool Use
,”
Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
, Pittsburgh, PA.
You do not currently have access to this content.