Product success is substantially influenced by satisfaction of knowledge needs of designers, and many tools and methods have been proposed to support these needs. However, adoption of these methods in industry is minimal. This may be due to an inadequate understanding of the knowledge needs of designers in industry. This research attempts to develop a better understanding of these needs by undertaking descriptive studies in an industry. We propose a taxonomy of knowledge, and evaluate this by analyzing the questions asked by the designers involved in the study during their interactions. Using the taxonomy, we converted the questions asked into a generic form. The generic questions provide an understanding about what knowledge must be captured during design, and what its structure should be.

1.
Salminen
,
V.
, and
Malinen
,
P.
, 1997, “
Global Engineering Networking—Turning Engineering Knowledge Into an Accessible Corporate Asset
,”
Proceedings of International Conference on Engineering Design
, Vol.
1
, pp.
167
172
.
2.
Frankenberger
,
E.
, and
Badke-Schaub
,
P.
, 1999, “
Information Management in Engineering Design—Empirical Results From Investigations in Industry
,”
Proceedings of International Conference on Engineering Design
, pp.
911
916
.
3.
Marsh
,
J. R.
, 1997, “
The Capture and Utilisation of Experience in Engineering Design
,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, Cambridge.
4.
Crabtree
,
R. A.
,
Fox
,
M. S.
, and
Baid
,
N. K.
, 1997, “
Case Studies of Coordination Activities and Problems in Collaborative Design
,”
Res. Eng. Des.
0934-9839,
9
, pp.
70
84
.
5.
MacGregor
,
S. P.
,
Thomson
,
A. I.
, and
Juster
,
N. P.
, 2001, “
Information Sharing Within a Distributed Collaborative Design Process: A Case Study
,”
Proceedings of Design Engineering Technical Conference
.
6.
Ottosson
,
S.
, 2003, “
Collaborative Product Development Considerations
,”
Human Behavior in Designing
,
U.
Lindemann
, ed.,
Springer-Verlag
,
Berlin
, pp.
164
173
.
7.
Busby
,
J. S.
, 1998, “
The Neglect of Feedback in Engineering Design Organizations
,”
Des. Stud.
0142-694X,
19
, pp.
103
117
.
8.
Stewart
,
T. A.
, 1997, “
Intellectual Capital: The New Wealth of Organizations
,”
Currency
,
1st ed.
,
Doubleday
,
New York
.
9.
Werner
,
H.
, and
Ahmed
,
S.
, 1999, “
Design Capturing With a Model System Using Event Triggered Procedures
,”
Proceedings of International Conference on Engineering Design
, pp.
1011
1014
.
10.
Gregory
,
T.
, 1999, “
Interoperability Cost Analysis of the US Automotive Supply Chain
,” National Institute of Standards and Technology, Planning Report.
11.
Kneebone
,
S.
, and
Blount
,
G. N.
, 1997, “
A Short Term Strategy for Product Knowledge Sharing and Re-Use
,”
Proceedings of International Conference on Engineering Design
, Vol.
2
, pp.
203
210
.
12.
Davis
,
R.
,
Shrobe
,
H.
, and
Szolovits
,
P.
, 1993, “
What is a Knowledge Representation
?”
AI Mag.
0738-4602,
14
(
1
), pp.
17
33
.
13.
Stenmark
,
D.
, 2002, “
Designing the New Intranet
,” Ph.D. thesis, Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden.
14.
Hansen
,
M. T.
,
Nohria
,
N.
, and
Tierney
,
T.
, 1999, “
What’s Your Strategy for Managing Knowledge
?”
Harvard Bus. Rev.
0017-8012,
March–April
, pp.
106
116
.
15.
Mcmahon
,
C.
,
Lowe
,
A.
, and
Culley
,
S.
, 2004, “
Knowledge Management in Engineering Design: Personalization and Codification
,”
J. Eng. Design
0954-4828,
15
(
4
), pp.
307
325
.
16.
Regli
,
W. C.
,
Hu
,
X.
,
Atwood
,
M.
, and
Sun
,
W.
, 2000, “
A Survey of Design Rationale Systems: Approaches, Representation, Capture and Retrieval
,”
Eng. Comput.
0177-0667,
16
, pp.
209
235
.
17.
Venselaar
,
K.
,
Van de Hoop
,
W.
, and
Van Drunen
,
P.
, 1987, “
The Knowledge Base of the Designer
,”
Regulation of Learning
,
P. R. G.
Simons
and
G.
Beukhof
, eds.,
SVO
,
The Hague
, pp.
121
135
.
18.
Desouza
,
K. C.
, and
Evaristo
,
J. R.
, 2004, “
Managing Knowledge in Distributed Projects
,”
Commun. ACM
0001-0782,
47
(
4
), pp.
87
91
.
19.
Brissaud
,
D.
, and
Poveda
,
G. O.
, 2003, “
Design Process Rationale Capture and Support by Abstraction of Criteria
,”
Res. Eng. Des.
0934-9839,
14
, pp.
162
172
.
20.
Kunz
,
W.
, and
Rittel
,
W.
, 1970, “
Issues as Elements Of Information Systems
,” University of California Working Paper No. 131.
21.
McCall
,
R. J.
, 1991, “
PHI: A Conceptual Foundation for Design Hypermedia
,”
Des. Stud.
0142-694X,
12
(
1
), pp.
30
41
.
22.
MacLean
,
A.
,
Young
,
R.
,
Belloti
,
V.
, and
Moran
,
T.
, 1991, “
Questions, Options, and Criteria: Elements of Design Space Analysis
,”
Human-Computer Interaction
,
6
(
3–4
), pp.
201
250
.
23.
de la Garza
,
J. M.
, and
Ramakrishnan
,
S.
, 1995, “
A Tool for Designers to Record Design Rationale of a Constructed Project
,”
Proceedings of Tenth International Conference on Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Engineering
,
Southampton, UK
, Computational Mechanics Publications, pp.
533
540
.
24.
Kruger
,
C.
, 1994, “
Analysis in the Conceptual Stage of Design
,”
Proceedings of International Conference on Information Technology in Design
, pp.
137
148
.
25.
Blessing
,
L. T. M.
, 1994, “
A Process-Based Approach to Computer Supported Engineering Design
,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Twente, The Netherlands.
26.
Nidamarthi
,
S.
, 1999, “
Understanding and Supporting Requirement Satisfaction in the Design Process
,” Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University, Cambridge.
27.
Kuffner
,
T. A.
, and
Ullman
,
D. G.
, 1991, “
The Information Requests of Mechanical Design Engineers
,”
Des. Stud.
0142-694X,
12
(
1
), pp.
42
50
.
28.
Khadilkar
,
D.
, and
Stauffer
,
L.
, 1995, “
Evaluating the Reuse of Design Information: An Experimental Case Study
,”
Proceeding of International Conference on Engineering Design
, Vol.
2
, pp.
484
489
.
29.
Gruber
,
T. R.
, and
Russell
,
D. M.
, 1991, “
Interactive Acquisition of Justifications: Learning Why by Being Told What
,”
IEEE Expert
0885-9000,
6
, pp.
65
75
.
30.
Gruber
,
T. R.
, and
Russell
,
D. M.
, 1991, “
Derivation and Use of Design Rationale Information as Expressed by Designers
,” Knowledge Systems Laboratory, Technical Report.
31.
Szykman
,
S.
,
Sriram
,
R. D.
, and
Regli
,
W. C.
, 2001, “
The Role of Knowledge in Next—Generation Product Development Systems
,”
ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng.
1530-9827,
1
, pp.
3
11
.
32.
Malmqvist
,
J.
, 1995, “
Improved Function-Means Trees by Inclusion of Design History Information
,”
Proceedings of International Conference on Engineering Design
, pp.
1415
1423
.
33.
Chandrasekaran
,
B.
,
Goel
,
A.
, and
Iwasaki
,
Y.
, 1993, “
Functional Representation as Design Rationale
,”
IEEE Computer
,
26
(
1
), pp.
48
56
.
34.
Goel
,
A.
, 1991, “
Model Revision: A Theory of Incremental Model Learning
,”
Proceedings of Eighth International Conference on Machine Learning
,
Chicago, IL, Morgan Kaufman
, pp.
605
609
.
35.
Rosenman
,
M. A.
, and
Gero
,
J. S.
, 1994, “
The What, the How and the Why in Design
,”
Applied Artificial Intelligence
,
8
(
2
), pp.
199
218
.
36.
Hubka
,
V.
, and
Eder
,
W.
, 1984, “
Theory of Technical Systems: A Total Concept Theory for Engineering Design
,”
Springer-Verlag
,
London, UK
.
37.
Andreasen
,
M. M.
, 1980, “
Synthesis Methods as Basis for System: Contribution to a Design Theory
,” Ph.D. thesis, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden.
38.
Chakrabarti
,
A.
,
Sarkar
,
P.
,
Leelavathamma
,
B.
, and
Nataraju
,
B. S.
, 2005, “
A Functional Representation for Aiding Biomimetic and Artificial Inspiration of New Ideas
,”
Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf.
0890-0604,
19
(
2
), pp.
113
132
.
39.
Potts
,
C.
, and
Bruns
,
G.
, 1998, “
Recording the Reasons for Design Decisions
,”
Proceedings of tenth International Conference on Software Engineering
, pp.
418
427
.
40.
Lee
,
J.
, and
Lai
,
K.
, 1991, “
What’s in Design Rationale
,”
Human-Computer Interaction
,
6
(
3–4
), pp.
251
280
.
41.
Nagy
,
R. L.
,
Ullman
,
D. G.
, and
Dietterich
,
T. G.
, 1992, “
A Data Representation for Collaborative Mechanical Design
,”
Res. Eng. Des.
0934-9839,
3
(
4
), pp.
233
242
.
42.
Ramesh
,
B.
, and
Dhar
,
V.
, 1992, “
Supporting Systems Development Using Knowledge Captured During Requirements Engineering
,”
IEEE Trans. Software Eng.
0098-5589,
18
(
6
), pp.
498
511
.
43.
Aurisicchio
,
M.
, 2005, “
Characterising Information Acquisition in Engineering Design
,” Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University, Cambridge.
44.
Duffy
,
S. M.
,
Duffy
,
A. H. B.
, and
MacCallum
,
K. J.
, 1995, “
A Design Reuse Model
,”
Proceedings of International Conference on Engineering Design
, Vol.
2
, pp.
490
495
.
45.
Smith
,
J. S.
, and
Duffy
,
A. H. B.
, 2001, “
Re-Using Knowledge—Why, What, and Where
,”
Proceedings of International Conference on Engineering Design
, pp.
227
234
.
46.
Taura
,
T.
, and
Kubota
,
A.
, 1999, “
A Study on Engineering History Base
,”
Res. Eng. Des.
0934-9839,
11
, pp.
45
54
.
47.
Banares-Alcantara
,
R.
, and
King
,
J. M. P.
, 1997, “
Design Support Systems for Process Engineering III—Design Rationale as a Requirement for Effective Support
,”
Comput. Chem. Eng.
0098-1354,
21
, pp.
263
276
.
48.
de la Garza
,
J. M.
, and
Alcantara
, Jr.,
P. T.
, 1997, “
Using Parameter Dependency Network to Represent Design Rationale
,”
J. Comput. Civ. Eng.
0887-3801,
11
, pp.
102
112
.
49.
Duffy
,
A. H. B.
, and
Legler
,
S.
, 1999, “
Rationalising Past Designs for Reuse
,”
Proceedings of International Conference on Engineering Design
, pp.
377
380
.
50.
Ullman
,
D. G.
, 1991, “
Design Histories: Archiving the Evolution of Products
,”
Proceedings of the DARPA Workshop on Manufacturing
.
51.
Grabowski
,
H. C. H.
, and
Rude
,
S.
, 1997, “
Ontology Technology the Key for Intelligent Migration and Retrieval of Information in Engineering Networks
,”
Proceedings of International Conference on Engineering Design
, Vol.
2
, pp.
231
236
.
52.
Neches
,
R.
,
Fikes
,
R.
,
Finin
,
T.
,
Gruber
,
T.
,
Patil
,
R.
,
Senator
,
T.
, and
Swartout
,
W. R.
, 1991, “
Enabling Technology for Knowledge Sharing
,”
AI Mag.
0738-4602,
12
(
3
), pp.
37
56
.
53.
Ahmed
,
S.
, 2001, “
Understanding the Use and Reuse of Experience in Engineering Design
,” Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University, Cambridge.
54.
Court
,
A. W.
, 1995, “
The Modelling and Classification of Information for Engineering Designers
,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Bath, Bath.
55.
Chakrabarti
,
A.
,
Murdoch
,
T.
, and
Wallace
,
K.
, 1995, “
Towards a Glossary of Engineering Design Terms
,”
Proceedings of International Conference on Engineering Design
, pp.
185
186
.
56.
Ahmed
,
S.
,
Blessing
,
L.
, and
Wallace
,
K.
, 1999, “
The Relationships Between Data, Information and Knowledge Based on a Preliminary Study of Engineering Designers
,”
Proceeings of ASME Design Theory and Methodology
.
57.
Vijaykumar
,
G.
, and
Chakrabarti
,
A.
, 2007, “
Generic Questions Generated From Various Case Studies in an Industry
,” http://cpdm.iisc.ernet.in/ideaslab/GenericQuestions.htmhttp://cpdm.iisc.ernet.in/ideaslab/GenericQuestions.htm.
You do not currently have access to this content.