Reverse engineering aims at reproducing an existing object by analyzing its dimensions, features, form, and properties. Reversing geometry has traditionally been emphasized in this process. The collected data and information must be transformed into pertinent product knowledge at both the detail and embodiment levels. A thorough analysis of the environment must be conducted in order determine the functional requirements, infer the original needs, and deduce the form and fit features. An integrated approach that blends techniques such as IDEF modeling, scanning, and physical measurements, least-squares methods, and statistics used for process capability analysis in an innovative manner can lead to a more complete model, as no one set of tools can provide a complete, comprehensive engineering representation. An integrated and systematic framework for design recovery of mechanical parts is proposed. Forward engineering techniques should be applied appropriately throughout and integrated with the reverse engineering process to heal the knowledge gaps. Examples are presented that illustrate the application of the proposed integrated approach and highlight its merits.

1.
Langbein
,
F. C.
,
Marshall
,
A. D.
, and
Martin
,
R. R.
, 2004, “
Choosing Consistent Constraints for Beautification of Reverse Engineered Geometric Models
,”
CAD
0010-4485,
36
(
3
), pp.
261
278
.
2.
Thompson
,
W. B.
,
Owen
,
J. C.
,
De St. Germain
,
J.
,
Stark
,
S. R.
, and
Henderson
,
T. C.
,
, 1999, “
Feature Based Reverse Engineering of Mechanical Parts
,”
IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom.
1042-296X,
15
(
1
), pp.
57
66
.
3.
Yuan
,
X.
,
Zhenrong
,
X.
, and
Haibin
,
W.
, 2001, “
Research on Integrated Reverse Engineering Technology for Forming Sheet Metal With a Freeform Surface
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
0924-0136,
112
(
2
), pp.
153
156
.
4.
Pahl
,
G.
, and
Beitz
,
W.
, 1988,
Engineering Design: A Systematic Approach
,
Springer-Verlag
,
London
.
5.
Suh
,
N. P.
, 2001,
Axiomatic Design: Advances and Applications
,
Oxford University Press
,
New York
.
6.
Altshuller
,
G.
, 1997,
40 Principles: TRIZ Keys to Technical Innovation
, Translated by L. Shulyak and S. Rodman,
Technical Innovation Center
,
Worcester, MA
, ISBN 0964074036.
7.
Tilley
,
S. R.
, 1998, “
A Reverse-Engineering Environment Framework
,” Software Engineering Institute Technical Report, SEI-98-TR-005,
Carnegie Mellon University
.
8.
Rugaber
,
S.
, 1994, “
White Paper on Reverse Engineering
,”
College of Computing and Software Engineering Res. Center
,
Georgia Institute of Technology
.
9.
Otto
,
K.
,
Wood
,
K
, 1996, “
A Reverse Engineering and Redesign Methodology for Product Evolution
,”
Proc. of ASME Design Engineering Tech. Conf., and Design Theory and Methodology Conference
, DETC96/DTM-1523.
10.
Fischer
,
A.
, and
Park
,
S.
, 1998, “
3D Scanning and Level of Detail Modeling for Design and Manufacturing
,”
CIRP Ann.
0007-8506,
47
(
1
), pp.
91
94
.
11.
Fischer
,
A.
, and
Smolin
,
A.
, 1997, “
Modeling in Reverse Engineering for Injection Molding Analysis of 3D Thin Objects
,”
CIRP Ann.
0007-8506,
46
(
1
), pp.
96
99
.
12.
Fisher
,
R.
, 2004, “
Applying Knowledge to Reverse Engineering Problems
,”
CAD
0010-4485,
36
(
6
), pp.
501
510
.
13.
Krause
,
F. L.
,
Fischer
,
A.
,
Gross
, and
N.
,
Barhak
,
J.
, 2003, “
Reconstruction of Freeform Objects With Arbitrary Topology Using Neural Networks and Subdivision Techniques
,”
CIRP Ann.
0007-8506,
52
(
1
), pp.
125
128
.
14.
Limaiem
,
A.
, and
ElMaraghy
,
H. A.
, 1999, “
Curve and Surface Modeling With Uncertainties Using Dual Kriging
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
1050-0472,
121
(
2
), pp.
249
255
.
15.
Attene
,
M.
, and
Spagnuolo
,
M.
, 2000, “
Automatic Surface Reconstruction from Point Sets in Space
,”
Comput. Graph. Forum
1067-7055,
19
, pp.
457
465
.
16.
Azernikov
,
S.
, and
Fischer
,
A.
, 2003, “
Surface Reconstruction of Freeform Objects Based on Hierarchical Space Decomposition
,”
Int. J. Shape Model.
0218-6543,
9
(
2
), pp.
177
190
.
17.
Bernardini
,
F.
,
Bajaj
,
C.
,
Chen
,
J.
, and
Schikore
,
D.
, 1999, “
Automatic Reconstruction of 3D CAD Models from Digital Scans
,”
Int. J. Comput. Geom. Appl.
0218-1959,
9
, pp.
327
370
.
18.
Kruth
,
J. P.
, and
Kerstens
,
A.
, 1998, “
Reverse Engineering Modeling of Free-Form Surfaces from Point Clouds Subject to Boundary Conditions
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
0924-0136,
76
(
1–3
), pp.
120
127
.
19.
Motavalli
,
S.
, 1998, “
Review of Reverse Engineering Approaches
,”
Comput. Ind. Eng.
0360-8352,
35
(
1–2
) pp.
25
28
.
20.
Zhang
,
L. Y.
,
Zhou
,
R. R.
,
Zhu
,
J. Y.
, and
Wu
,
X.
, 2002, “
Piecewise B-Spline Surfaces Fitting to Arbitrary Triangle Meshes
,”
CIRP Ann.
0007-8506,
51
(
1
) pp.
131
134
.
21.
Zhongwei.
Y.
, and
Shouwei
,
J.
, 2003, “
Automatic Segmentation and Approximation of Digitized Data for Reverse Engineering
,”
Int. J. Prod. Res.
0020-7543, Vol.
41
(
13
), pp.
3045
3058
.
22.
Chappuis
,
C.
,
Rassineux
,
A.
,
Breitkopf
,
P.
, and
Villon
,
P.
, 2004, “
Improving Surface Meshing from Discrete Data by Feature Recognition
,”
Eng. Comput.
0177-0667,
20
(
3
) pp.
202
209
.
23.
Botsch
,
M.
, and
Kobbelt
,
L.
, 2001, “
Resampling Feature and Blend Regions in Polygonal Meshes for Surface Anti-aliasing
,”
Comput. Graph. Forum
1067-7055,
20
(
3
), pp.
402
410
.
24.
Dey
,
T. K.
,
Giesen
,
J.
, and
Hudson
,
J.
, 2001, “
Delaunay Based Shape Reconstruction from Large Data
,”
IEEE Symposium in Parallel and Large Data Visualization and Graphics
, pp.
19
27
.
25.
Turk
,
G.
, and
Levoy
,
M.
, 1994, “
Zippered Polygon Meshes from Range Images
,”
Proc. of ACM SIGGRAPH
, pp.
311
18
.
26.
Vanco
,
M
, and
Brunnett
,
G.
, 2004, “
Direct Segmentation of Algebraic Models for Reverse Engineering
,”
Computing
0010-485X,
72
(
1–2
), pp.
207
220
.
27.
Vadde
,
S.
,
Kamarthi
,
S. V.
, and
Gupta
,
S. M.
, 2004,
Multi-Scale Registration Algorithm for Alignment of Meshes
, Intelligent Manufacturing, The International Society for Optical Engineering, Providence, RI., pp.
113
.
28.
Kverh
,
B.
, and
Leonardis
,
A.
, 2002, “
A New Refinement Method for Registration of Range Images Based on Segmented Data
,”
Computing
0010-485X,
68
(
1
), pp.
81
96
.
29.
ElMaraghy
,
W.
, and
Rolls
,
C.
, 2001, “
Design by Quality Product Digitization
,”
CIRP Ann.
0007-8506,
50
(
1
), pp.
93
96
.
30.
Eggert
,
D. W.
,
Fitzgibbon
,
A. W.
, and
Fisher
,
R. B.
, 1998, “
Simultaneous Registration of Multiple Range Views for Use in Reverse Engineering of CAD Models
,”
Comput. Vis. Image Underst.
1077-3142,
69
(
3
), pp.
253
272
.
31.
Mills
,
B. I.
,
Langbein
,
F. C.
,
Marshall
,
A. D.
, and
Martin
,
R. R.
, 2001, “
Estimate of Frequencies of Geometric Regularities for Use in Reverse Engineering of Simple Mechanical Components
,” Technical Report GVG 2001-1, Geometry and Vision Group, Department of Computer Science,
Cardiff University
.
32.
Dixon
,
J. R.
, and
Poli
,
C.
, 1995,
Engineering Design and Design for Manufacturing: A Structured Approach
,
Field Stone Publishers
,
Conway, MA
.
33.
ElMaraghy
,
H. A.
, and
ElMaraghy
,
W. H.
, 1994, “
Computer-Aided Inspection Planning (CAIP)
,” in
Advances in Feature Based Manufacturing
,
J. J
Shah
,
M.
Mantyla
, and
D. S.
Nau
, Eds.,
Elsevier
,
Amsterdam, Netherlands
, Chap. 16, pp.
363
396
.
34.
Tichkiewitch
,
S.
, and
Veron
,
M.
, and 1998, “
Integration of Manufacturing Processes in Design
,”
CIRP Ann.
0007-8506,
47
(
1
), pp.
99
102
.
35.
Van Vliet
,
J. W.
,
Van Luttervelt
,
C. A.
, and
Kals
,
H. J. J.
, 1999, “
State-of-the-Art Report on Design for Manufacturing
,”
Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technical Conferences
, DETC99/DFM-8970.
36.
Wiendahl
,
H. P.
, and
Scholtissek
,
P.
, 1994; “
Management and Control of Complexity in Manufacturing
,”
CIRP Ann.
0007-8506,
43
(
2
), pp.
533
540
.
37.
Benko
,
P.
,
Kos
,
G.
,
Varady
,
T.
,
Andor
,
L.
, and
Martin
,
R.
, 2002, “
Constrained Fitting in Reverse Engineering
,”
Comput. Aided Geom. Des.
0167-8396,
19
(
3
), pp.
173
205
.
38.
Langbein
,
F. C.
, 2003, “
Beautification of Reverse Engineered Geometric Models
,” Ph. D. thesis, Cardiff University.
39.
Mills
,
B. I.
,
Langbein
,
F. C.
,
Marshall
,
A. D.
, and
Martin
,
R. R.
, 2001, “
Approximate Symmetry Detection For Reverse Engineering
,”
Sixth ACM Symposium on Solid Modeling and Applications
, pdf.
40.
Page
,
D.
,
Koschan
,
A.
,
Sun
,
Y.
, and
Abidi
,
M.
, 2003, “
Laser-based Imaging for Reverse Engineering
,”
Sens. Rev.
0260-2288,
23
(
3
), pp.
223
229
.
41.
Urbanic
,
R. J.
,
ElMaraghy
,
H. A.
, and
ElMaraghy
,
W. H.
, 2005, “
Integrated Reverse and Forward Engineering Design: A Systematic Analysis-Synthesis Approach
,”
Proc. 15th CIRP Design Seminar Shanghai
, May 22–26, pp.
451
462
.
42.
Nassef
,
A. O.
, and
ElMaraghy
,
H. A.
, 1997, “
Allocation of Geometric Tolerances: New Criterion and Methodology
,”
CIRP Ann.
0007-8506,
46
(
1
), pp.
101
104
.
43.
Levy
,
G. N.
,
Schindel
,
R.
, and
Kruth
,
J. P.
, 2003, “
Rapid Manufacturing and Rapid Tooling With Layer Manufacturing (LM) Technologies, State of the Art and Future Perspectives
,”
CIRP Ann.
0007-8506,
52
(
2
), pp.
589
610
.
44.
United States Department of Defense, 2006, “
Assistant Secretary of Defense (Networks & Information Integration), DoD CIO
,” http://www.defenselink.mil/nii/global_Info_grid.htmlhttp://www.defenselink.mil/nii/global_Info_grid.html
45.
Federal Enterprise Architecture, 2006, “
E-GOV-Powering America’s Future With Technology
,” U.S. Office of Management and Budget, http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/egov/a-1-fea.htmlhttp://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/egov/a-1-fea.html
46.
Institute for Enterprise Architecture Developments, 2006, “
Information Exchange Area of the Institute For Enterprise Architecture Developments
,” IFEAD, http://www.enterprise-architecture. info/http://www.enterprise-architecture. info/
47.
Zachman
,
J.
, 2002, “
Enterprise Architecture
,” Zachman International©, http://www.zachmaninternational. com/default.htmhttp://www.zachmaninternational. com/default.htm
48.
Hirtz
,
J.
,
Stone
,
R.
,
McAdams
,
D.
,
Szykman
,
S.
, and
Wood
,
K.
, 2002, “
A Functional Basis for Engineering Design: Reconciling and Evolving Previous Efforts
,” NIST Technical Note 1447.
49.
Heisler
,
H.
, 1999,
Vehicle and Engine Technology
,
2nd ed.
, SAE International, PA, pp.
341
342
.
50.
Schey
,
J.
, 1987,
Introduction to Manufacturing Processes
,
2nd ed.
,
McGraw Hill
,
Toronto
, CA.
51.
Liwei
,
Q.
,
Yi
,
Z.
, and
Minghui
,
L.
, 2004, “
Contour Segments Extraction of 3-D Surfaces from Layer Measurements
,”
Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol.
0268-3768,
24
, pp.
335
344
.
52.
Liu
,
S.
, and
Ma
,
W.
, 2001, “
Motif Analysis for Automatic Segmentation of CT Surface Contours into Individual Surface Features
,”
CAD
0010-4485,
32
, pp.
1091
1109
.
You do not currently have access to this content.