The past three decades have seen phenomenal growth in investments in the area of product lifecycle management (PLM) as companies exploit opportunities in streamlining product lifecycle processes, and fully harnessing their data assets. These processes span all product lifecycle phases from requirements definition, systems design/ analysis, and simulation, detailed design, manufacturing planning, production planning, quality management, customer support, in-service management, and end-of-life recycling. Initiatives ranging from process re-engineering, enterprise-level change management, standardization, globalization and the like have moved PLM processes to mission-critical enterprise systems. Product data representations that encapsulate semantics to support product data exchange and PLM collaboration processes have driven several standards organizations, vendor product development efforts, real-world PLM implementations, and research initiatives. However, the process and deployment dimensions have attracted little attention: The need to optimize organization processes rather than individual benefits poses challenging “culture change management” issues and have derailed many enterprise-scale PLM efforts. Drawn from the authors’ field experiences as PLM system integrators, business process consultants, corporate executives, vendors, and academicians, this paper explores the broad scope of PLM, with an added focus on the implementation and deployment of PLM beyond the development of technology. We review the historical evolution of engineering information management/PLM systems and processes, characterize PLM implementations and solution contexts, and discuss case studies from multiple industries. We conclude with a discussion of research issues motivated by improving PLM adoption in industry.

1.
Workflow Management for Simultaneous Engineering Networks, Funded by the Commission of the European Communities under the ESPRIT programme. ⟨http://tmitwww.tm.tue.nl/staff/krouibah/SIMNET.htmhttp://tmitwww.tm.tue.nl/staff/krouibah/SIMNET.htm
2.
Koulopolous
,
T. M.
, 1995,
The Workflow Imperative: Building Real World Business Solutions
,
Van Nostrand–Reinhold
, New York.
3.
Bowler
,
L. L.
, and
Rohde
,
S. M.
, 1995, “
A Math-Data Environment to Improve Vehicle Creation
,”
Proc., ASME 9th Annual Engineering Database Symposium
,
Boston
, MA.
4.
Ullman
,
D. G.
, 2003,
The Mechanical Design Process
,
McGraw–Hill
, New York.
5.
Cooper
,
R. G.
, 2001,
Winning at New Products
,
Perseus
, New York.
6.
Meyer
,
M.
, and
Lehnerd
,
A.
, 1997,
The Power of Product Platforms
,
The Free Press
.
7.
Fowler
,
M.
, 2004,
UML Distilled: A Brief Guide to the Standard Object Modeling Language
,
Addison–Wesley
, Reading, MA.
8.
The Design Structure Matrix Home Page ⟨http://www.dsmweb.org/http://www.dsmweb.org/
9.
Morenc
,
R.
, and
Rangan
,
R. M.
, 1993, “
Object Oriented Databases in the Engineering Enterprise
.”
Design Analysis, Robust Methods, and Stress Classification
,
Bees
, ed.,
Proc. ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping in Industry
.
10.
Rangan
,
R. M.
, and
Chadha
,
B.
, 2001, “
Engineering Information Management to Support Enterprise Business Processes
,”
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng.
1530-9827,
1
(
1
), pp.
11.
ISO 10303-1: 1994, “
Industrial Automation Systems and Integration—Product Data Representation and Exchange-Part 1: Description Methods: Overview and Fundamental Principles
.”
13.
PDM Enablers V2.0, 2001, OMG Document mfg/2001-06-01, OMG.
14.
Fowler
,
M.
, 1997,
Analysis Patterns: Reusable Object Models
,
Addison–Wesley
, Reading, MA.
15.
Rangan
,
R.
, and
Chadha
,
B.
, 1997, “
Design Patterns for Engineering Processes
,”
Proc. ASME, 1997 Design Technical Conferences and Computers in Engineering Conference
,
Sacramento
, CA.
16.
Ulrich
,
K. T.
, and
Eppinger
,
S. D.
, 2003,
Product design and development
,
Irwin/McGraw–Hill
, Boston.
17.
Fine
,
C.
, 1998,
Clockspeed—Winning Industry Control in the Age of Temporary Advantage
,
Perseus
, Reading, MA.
18.
Fleischer
,
M.
, and
Liker
,
J. K.
, 1997,
Concurrent Engineering Effectiveness: Integrating Product Development Across Organizations
,
Hanser Gardner
.
19.
Miller
,
E.
, 2003,
State of the PLM Industry
,
Proc., CIMdata PLM Conference
.
20.
Morris
,
H.
,
Lee
,
S.
,
Shan
,
E.
, and
Zeng
,
S.
, 2004, “
An Information Integration Framework for Product Lifecycle Management of Diverse Data
,”
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng.
1530-9827,
4
(
4
), pp.
21.
Product Sight Corporation white paper
, 2005, “
Search Engines Leverage Product Data to Meet Manufacturing Business Demands
,” BusinessWeek Special Technology Software Supplement ⟨http://www.technology-reports.com/report.asp?id=409http://www.technology-reports.com/report.asp?id=409
22.
Web Services Architecture
, 2004, W3C Working Group ⟨www.w3.org/TR/ws-archwww.w3.org/TR/ws-arch
25.
CM Plan and CMII Rules
,
Institute of Configuration Management
, Scottsdale, AZ.
26.
Ungerer
,
M.
, and
Buchanan
,
K.
, 1997,
Usage Guide for the STEP PDM Schema V1.2
, Release 4.3.
27.
Extensible Markup Language (XML)
, 2003, ⟨W3C, http://www.w3.org/XML/http://www.w3.org/XML/
28.
SysML Partners
, 2003, “
SysML Overview
,”
Presentation to OMG Analysis and Design Task Force
http://www.sysml.orghttp://www.sysml.org
29.
ebXML, a joint initiative of the United Nations (UN/CEFACT) and OASIS: ⟨http://www.ebxml.org/http://www.ebxml.org/
30.
Workflow Management Coalition, 2005, ⟨http://www.wfmc.org/http://www.wfmc.org/
31.
Winter
,
D.
, 1999, “
Ford’s C3P Moves Ahead
,” Ward’s Auto World, ⟨http://waw.wardsauto.com/ar/auto_fords_cp_moves/http://waw.wardsauto.com/ar/auto_fords_cp_moves/
32.
Boeing Production Initiatives, Define and Control Airplane Configuration (“DCAC/MRM”), ⟨http://www.boeing.com/commercial/initiatives/dcacmrm/dcac_summary.htmlhttp://www.boeing.com/commercial/initiatives/dcacmrm/dcac_summary.html
33.
Proc., of 2005 CIMdata Vendor Forum
.
34.
PTC Product Development System: Product Lifecycle Management for Manufacturing Companies, 2003 ⟨http://www.PTC.com/go/pdshttp://www.PTC.com/go/pds
35.
EIM Panel: Streamlining EIM Implementations, Chair,
Rangan
,
R. M.
; Panelists:
Bettig
,
B. P.
Michigan Technological University,
Howell
,
La
, Retd., GM Corporation,
Jennings
,
M.
Ford Motor Company, 2003,
Proc., ASME DETC/CIE Conference
.
36.
Colton
,
J. S.
, 1987, “
The Design and Implementation of A Relational Materials Property Data Base
,”
Proc., ASME Annual Engineering Database Symposium
.
38.
Unigraphics Systems ⟨http://www.ugs.com/http://www.ugs.com/
39.
JT Open, An open platform for visualization, collaboration and data sharing across the product lifecycle ⟨http://www.jtopen.com/docs/JT_Open_fs_22.pdfhttp://www.jtopen.com/docs/JT_Open_fs_22.pdf
41.
Chadha
,
B.
,
et al.
, 1996, “
Enterprise Infrastructure Support for Agility
,”
Proc., 5th National Agility, Conference
.
42.
Kao
,
K.
,
Seeley
,
C.
,
Yin
,
S.
,
Kolonay
,
R.
,
Rus
,
T.
, and
Paradis
,
M.
, 2004, “
Business-to-Business Virtual Collaboration of Aircraft Engine Combustor Design
,” Special Issue on Engineering Information Management to Product Lifecycle Management,
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng.
1530-9827,
4
(
4
), pp.
43.
Synchronized Product Information, 2003, Remy Int’l Case Study, Product Sight Corporation ⟨http://www.productsight.comhttp://www.productsight.com
44.
Jennings
,
M.
, and
Rangan
,
R.
, 2004, “
Managing Complex Vehicle System Simulation Models for Automotive System Development
.” In Special Issue on Engineering Information Management to Product Lifecycle Management,
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng.
1530-9827,
4
(
4
), pp.
45.
Heimbigner
,
D.
, and
McLeod
,
D.
, 1985, “
A Federated Architecture for Information Management
,”
ACM Trans. Office Information Syst.
,
3
(
3
), pp.
46.
Chadha
,
B.
, 1997, “
A Federated PIM for Supply Chains
,”
Proc. D. H. Brown Symposium on PLM Implementation Roadmap
.
47.
The Google Search Engine ⟨http://www.google.comhttp://www.google.com
48.
Gallaher
,
M. P.
,
O’Connor
,
A. C.
, and
Phelps
,
T.
, 2002, “
Economic Impact Assessment of International Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP) in Transportation Equipment Industries
,” NIST Planning Report 02-5 ⟨http://www.mel.nist.gov/msid/sima/step_economic_impact.pdfhttp://www.mel.nist.gov/msid/sima/step_economic_impact.pdf
50.
Kemmerer
,
S.
, 1999, “
STEP: The Grand Experience
,” National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST SP 939 ⟨http://www.mel.nist.gov/msidlibrary/publications.htmlhttp://www.mel.nist.gov/msidlibrary/publications.html
51.
Pratt
,
M. J.
, 2001, “
Introduction to ISO 10303—the STEP Standard for Product Data Exchange
,”
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng.
1530-9827,
1
(
1
), pp.
102
103
.
52.
Peak
,
R. S.
, 2002, “
Using Standards-Based Approaches for Electronics Product Design and Life Cycle Support. Extended Lecture
,”
Shinshu University
, Nagano City, Japan ⟨http://eislab.gatech.edu/pubs/seminars-etc/2002-04-shinshu-peakhttp://eislab.gatech.edu/pubs/seminars-etc/2002-04-shinshu-peak
53.
Peak
,
R. S.
,
Lubell
,
J.
,
Srinivasan
,
V.
, and
Waterbury
,
S. C.
, 2004, “
STEP, XML, and UML: Complementary Technologies. Product Lifecycle Management (PLM)
.”
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng.
1530-9827,
4
(
4
), pp.
1
20
.
54.
Shirkey
,
C.
, “
Ontology is Overrated: Categories, Links, and Tags, Clay Shirky’s Writings About the Internet: Economics & Culture, Media & Community, Open Source
,” ⟨http://shirky.com/writings/ontology_overrated.htmlhttp://shirky.com/writings/ontology_overrated.html
55.
Mendelson
,
H.
, and
Pillai
,
R.
, 1999, “
Industry Clockspeed: Measurement and Operational Implications
,”
Manuf. Serv. Operat. Manage.
,
1
(
1
).
56.
Peak
,
R. S.
, 2003, “
Characterizing Fine-Grained Associativity Gaps: A Preliminary Study of CAD-E Model Interoperability
,” DETC2003/CIE-48232,
Proc. ASME DETC & CIE Conf.
.
57.
58.
Jervis
,
R.
, 1997,
System Effects: Complexity in Political and Social Life
,
Princeton University Press
, Princeton, NJ.
59.
Sawhney
,
M.
, 2001, “
Don’t Homogenize, Synchronize
,”
Harvard Bus. Rev.
0017-8012,
79
(
7
), pp.
100
108
, 145.
60.
Ullman
,
D. G.
,
Dietterich
,
T. G.
, and
Stauffer
,
L.
, 1988, “
A Model of the Mechanical Design Process Based on Empirical Data: A Summary
,”
Proc. AI Eng’88 Conference
.
61.
Chadha
,
B.
, and
Welsh
,
J.
, 2000, “
Architecture Concepts for Simulation-based Acquisition of Complex Systems
,”
Summer Computer Simulation Conference
.
62.
Partners for the Advancement of Collaborative Engineering Education (PACE), http://pacepartners.org.
You do not currently have access to this content.