A post-tsunami evacuation simulation using 3D kinematic digital human models (KDHs) and its experimental verification are addressed in the present study. Methods for carrying or assisting (transporting) injured people were experimentally investigated and the results were used for KDH data calibration to increase the accuracy of the simulations. It was found that, on flat ground, both the transit speed and the amount of time spent on intermittent rests were strongly affected by the load on the transporters. During ascent of stairways, the transit speed depended on the type of carry method being used and decreased in the order saddleback carry, two-person arm carry and slightly injured walking. Several KDH evacuee motion primitives were developed for stairway ascent to a tsunami evacuation tower. The simulation results show that the evacuation time was affected by the number of evacuees and the congestion due to the transportation of injured people. The developed simulation techniques can be effectively utilized in the planning of tsunami tower evacuation and predicting related crowd behavior.

References

References
1.
Dairy Yomiuri Online
,
2012
, “34 Disaster Base Hospitals Fear Flooding,” The Dairy Yomiuri.
2.
Urii
,
J.
, and
Kakizaki
,
T.
,
2010
, “
A 3-Dimensional Accurate Simulation Method for Mass Evacuation Using Precise Human Joint Model (Application to a Mass Evacuation Drill by High-School Students)
,”
Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng.
,
76
(
769
), pp.
2176
2185
.
3.
Kakizaki
,
T.
,
Urii
,
J.
, and
Endo
,
T.
,
2012
, “
A Three-Dimensional Evacuation Simulation Using Digital Human Models With Precise Kinematic Joints
,”
ASME J. Comput. Inform. Sci. Eng.
,
12
(
3
), p.
031001
.10.1115/1.4006737
4.
Kiyono
,
J.
,
Miura
,
H.
, and
Takimoto
,
K.
,
1996
, “
Applying DEM to Simulation of Evacuation in Emergency
,” JSCE, Paper No. 537/I-35, pp.
233
244
.
5.
Mazda
,
T.
,
Otsuka
,
H.
,
Chisaki
,
T.
, and
Uchida
,
H.
,
1999
, “
A Study on Simulation of Evacuation at Underground Shopping Street Using Cellular Automata
,” ISSS, Paper No. 2, pp.
95
100
.
6.
Morishita
,
S.
, and
Nakatsuka
,
N.
,
2002
, “
Simulation of Emergency Evacuation by Cellular Automata
,”
Dynamics and Design Conference
, Paper No. 2-9.
7.
Fujioka
,
M.
,
Ishibashi
,
K.
,
Kaji
,
H.
, and
Tsukagoshi
,
I.
,
2002
, “
Assessment for Estimated Evacuee Behavior Using Multi-Agent Based Simulation Model
,” ISSS, Paper No. 4, pp.
57
63
.
8.
Miura
,
R.
,
Kaneko
,
Y.
, and
Abe
,
Y.
,
2007
, “
Event Simulation of Stairs Walk in Evacuation
,”
IEE Japan Conference
, p.
318
.
9.
Hasihimoto
,
K.
,
Inoue
,
S.
,
Omachi
,
T.
, and
Urii
,
J.
,
2006
, “
Behavioral Characteristics of Group Evacuation Learned From Evacuation Drill and Its Simulation
,”
JAEE 12th Symposium
, pp.
1390
1393
.
10.
Murray
,
M. P.
,
Drought
,
A. B.
, and
Kory
,
R. C.
,
1964
, “
Walking Patterns of Normal Man
,”
J. Bone Joint Surgery
,” pp.
335
360
.
11.
Finley
,
F. R.
, and
Cody
,
K. A.
,
1970
, “
Locomotive Characteristics of Urban Pedestrians
,”
Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.
,
51
(
7
), pp.
423
426
.
12.
Sato
,
H.
, and
Ishizu
,
K.
,
1990
, “
Gait Patterns of Japanese Pedestrians
,”
J. Human Ergology
,
19
(
1
), pp.
13
22
.
13.
Bobbert
,
A. C.
,
1960
, “
Energy Expenditure in Level and Grade Walking
,”
J. Appl. Physiol.
,
15
(
6
), pp.
1015
1021
.
14.
Margaria
,
R.
,
Cerretelli
,
P.
,
Aghemo
,
P.
, and
Sassi
,
G.
,
1963
, “
Energy Cost of Running
,”
J. Appl. Physiol.
,
18
(
2
), pp.
367
370
.
15.
Goto
,
Y.
,
Honma
,
S.
,
Matsushita
,
K.
,
Okamoto
,
T.
, and
Tsujino
,
A.
,
1980
, “
Electromyographic Study on Grade Walking
,” Osaka City University,
Ann. Phys. Educ.
,
15
, pp.
67
76
.
16.
Takahashi
,
H.
,
1984
, “
Study of the Time Factor During One Cycle of the Gait on the Slope
,”
J. Okayama Med. Assoc.
,
96
(
1-2
), pp.
181
188
.
You do not currently have access to this content.